Dark Green II: Roots of Eco-Fascism

By M.K. Styllinski

Eco-fascism: “… A totalitarian government that requires individuals to sacrifice their interests to the well-being and glory of the “land”, understood as the splendid web of life, or the organic whole of nature, including peoples and their states”

– Michael E. Zimmerman, pp. 531-532 in Encyclopedia of Religion and Nature

Before looking at how environmentalism and ecological thinking operates today in some sectors of the world, we need to jump back and take a look at some of its roots.

Ecology is an interdisciplinary branch of biology exploring the relationships between living organisms and their natural environment. Even though he was not an ecologist, biologist and philosopher Ernst Haeckel coined the word “oekologie,” in 1866 from the Greek oikos meaning “house” and logos meaning “science.”  The doctrine of Vitalism has strong ties to the evolution of ecology which states that “living organisms are fundamentally different from non-living entities because they contain some non-physical element or are governed by different principles than are inanimate things” [1] It incorporates the idea of “the soul” and “Spirit” as well as the theory of “ether” that bound all living things together; the elusive fifth element in Hermetic philosophy.

This is a very old idea that can be traced back to the philosopher/surgeon Galen of Pergamon of 2nd Century Turkey. Ecology of the mind, land and social systems have tended to go hand in hand with the development of holism or “holistic thinking” so popular in complementary medicine and new science. This theory posits that parts of a whole have an intimate interconnection to each other and as such, cannot exist or be understood independently of that whole. Much work has been done on the validity of this theory that sees the biological organisation of life self-organising: “… into layers of emergent whole systems that function according to non-reducible properties.” [2] This has never been more applicable to physical and mental disease and in sharp contrast to Cartesian and reductionist theories of mind and matter.

Distinct from environmentalism (philosophy, ideology and social movement) and environmental science, ecology attempts to explain life processes and adaptations; the distribution and abundance of organisms; the movement of materials and energy through living communities and the long-term development of biodiversity in the environment.

A number of disciplines come under the umbrella of ecology including: behavioural ecology; community ecology (or synecology); ecophysiology; ecopsychology; ecosystem ecology; evolutionary ecology; global ecology; population ecology; human ecology and social ecology.

monolith Sculptures Near Amsterdam, Holland | © infrakshun

Whether ecology actually is a science is still hotly debated. The fact that it appeals to the wise and benevolent as much as the ignorant and evil is probably due to its diverse mix of disciplines. Whether physiology, evolutionary biology, genetics, or ethology, any science can be made to work for an ideology usually at the cost of truth.  When a passionate love of “pure Nature” is present all that is needed to transform that belief into a toxic time-bomb is to mix in some neo-feudalism, Marxist theory and a touch of occultism and the race is on to control the “viral” spread of humanity under the guise of healing the planet. Though Darwinism and Malthusianism had little to do with ecology, they have often sat alongside ecological thinking and the fascist/collectivist policies that slowly rose up through their ranks.

Historian Anna Bramwell’s The Fading of the Greens: Decline of Environmental Politics in the West , a mammoth trilogy on ecology and environmental activism, shows that ecologists were constantly aligned with fascist parties, fascistic philosophy, the aristocracy and Establishment.[3]   These often anti-transcendent thinkers were both pro-rural and anti-capitalist naturalists and according to Bramwell, this desire to re-discover Nature meant to learn and: “… return with the recommendation that one clings to the wheel because it is the most sensible path of action. To do so requires sweeping away past identities, past traditions and past errors.” In effect, such a personality is: “… a natural protestor.” [4]

Traditionally the seeds of fascistic thinking in ecology and environmental movements began to appear in Europe after the growth of the natural sciences in the 17th and 18th centuries and in the reaction to the exploitation of the land and communities that the Industrial Revolution eventually reconfigured, or swept away entirely. Britain’s artists such as William Blake raged against the machine of industry as “Dark Satanic Mills” with pioneers such as John Ruskin, William Morris, Edward Carpenter and Henry Williamson continuing the struggle. Americans too were equally aghast at the destruction and consequent  “desacralisation” of Nature with the likes of Ralph Waldo Emerson, Walt Whitman and Henry Thoreau offering activist wings to ecological thoughts.

This helped to give rise to the environmental movement headed by such people as Arthur Tansley who coined the term “eco-system” and Aldo Leopold who championed the cause of “land ethics” closely mirroring the Back to the Land Movement first initiated by Ruskin, though with a somewhat more scientific focus. Indeed, scientists were beginning to offer the world an ecological framework including Charles Elton’s animal ecology and food chains, along side Alexander Stuart Watt’s plant ecology. By the middle of the 20th Century, humanism and the environment were getting closer and the World State policies trumpeted by biologist Julian Huxley as head of the UN’s UNESCO agency reflected this change. Huxley’s naturalist and ethological background (the study of animals in their natural habitats) fed into his vision of humanity on a petri-dish which needed to be ordered and managed. Since the board of UNESCO saw fit to make him the Chairman, they obviously felt the same way.

In Britain, in the early part of the 20th century the growth of various environmental movements were largely in response to the economic depression which had hit farming hard after the prosperous years of the mid-19th century. The Dartington Trust founded in the 1920s to promote rural regeneration; The Garden City movement which placed a magnifying glass on town and garden design in urban areas; The Council for the Protection of Rural England and The Ramblers Association in the 1930 concentrated on town planning and the relationship to the countryside. Landowners and farmers had to cope with falling prices, lower rents and untenanted farms. Back to the Land came into its own with The English Land Colonisation Society creating 400 farming communities. Cooperatives were formed and derelict land and run-down farms were taken over; Arts and Crafts were revived and community increased. This was something undeniably anti-industry and a healthy reversal of the “filthy tide” of industrialisation which was making the British Empire the uncontested global manager.  The money came predominantly from the wealthy and those with aristocratic connections who were intent on “preserving the countryside, controlling development and shifting the population out of big cities.” [5]

According to Bramwell’s research, ecologists were mostly conservative, monarchist and staunch traditionalists of the “green and pleasant land” mythology which derived from the same traditions as the German Romantic Movement which in turn, came from immensely deep roots in German society. This revival of the land and nature began to be part of the green social movement which meant resisting the inexorable drive of the industrialists. But there was a shadow side. This “Blood and Soil” romanticism became a powerful influence not just in Britain but across all of Europe and America.

Drawn from the Völkisch or “Völk” in German culture, it refers to ethnicity from the “Blood” as ancestral descent and the homeland or “Soil”. It places a vital importance on the notion of rural living and the place humans occupy in relation to Nature and their immediate environment. It was made more popular during the rise of the Nazi Third Reich by Richard Walther Darré a Nazi party member, race theorist and eugenics advocate. Yet the Blood and Soil sentiment had been present in pagan cults embedded in the ecological fabric of Germany and thus a potential political force deep in the psyche of Germans outside the cities. (We will come back to Darré and Germany’s influence on Eco-Fascism later on).

Literature from the 1880s – 1940s was infused with folklore, countryside mythology and a pagan sensuality of nature. D.H. Lawrence was one of  the best examples of this new ecological vision. It was through such persons that the emerging environmental and nature activists re-learned vitalism and the “God in Nature.” His wife, Frieda von Richtofen, introduced Lawrence to an artist colony which had a: “… distinctive German brand of serious nature-worship and sun-worship”. This seems to have been a significant influence in his art and according to Bramwell: “appears to resemble the language of the proto-Nazis.”[6] Whether or not that is true, the link between English and German fascism and the art of the European intelligentsia  was very strong indeed.

19th century author and poet Ernst Moritz Arndt and journalist and novelist Wilhelm Heinrich Riehl seemed to personify the eco-fascism of the pre-war period in Germany. Arndt seemed to write beautifully and movingly about the plight of Nature under the Industrial Revolution and the importance of ecological awareness, yet he seemed to despise human beings. He was anti-French, anti-Slav, anti-Semitic and xenophobic, placing German land and people at the forefront of perfection. Riehl learned from his teacher Arndt but differed in focus. The same nationalism and anti-Semitism was present but he leaned towards an early version of environmental activism in which he advocated a fight for “the rights of wilderness.” This was to be for the well-being of the German people alone, however.

Blut und Boden / “Blood and Soil” propaganda card.

The Völkisch movement welcomed them with open arms and as humanist writer Peter Staudenmaier comments: “… it pointedly refused to locate the sources of alienation, rootlessness and environmental destruction in social structures, laying the blame instead to rationalism, cosmopolitanism, and urban civilization. The stand-in for all of these was the age-old object of peasant hatred and middle-class resentment: the Jews.” [7]

A good example of the latent fascism residing in aristocracy and the Establishment was charismatically expressed through politician Sir Oswald Ernald Mosley, 6th Baronet, of Ancoats, who founded the BUF. On 11 May 1920 he married Lady Cynthia Curzon second daughter of George Curzon, Lord Curzon of Kedleston and married his mistress in 1933 in Germany on 6 October 1936, in the Berlin home of Nazi propaganda chief Joseph Goebbels. Adolf Hitler was one of the guests.

Mosley was a distinguished orator and and one of the youngest MPs to be elected to represent his constituency of Harrow in 1918. He began as a conservative then joined the Labour Party by 1924 immediately changed his allegiance to the Independent Labour Party (ILP). Mosley and his wife Cynthia were committed Fabians right up to the start of the 1930s. [8] When Labour won the 1929 general election he was appointed to the post of Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster. However, his presence in government was to be short-lived. Mosley put forward a whole scheme in the ‘Mosley Memorandum’ only to find it soundly rejected, despite the fact it preceded much of the socialist policy in the intervening years. [9]

After resigning from the cabinet in 1930 he founded the New Party which gradually warmed to fascist policies. The momentum stalled due to the General Election the following year so Mosley took the opportunity to take a tour of Mussolini’s Italy which finalised his desire to pursue overtly fascist politics back in the UK. So, the British Union of Fascists was born. His corps of black-uniformed paramilitary stewards, or “blackshirts” was constantly in the news for being involved in violent confrontations between Communist or Jewish groups which would eventually lead to the downfall of Mosley’s party. When the government passed the Public Order Act 1936 which came into into effect the following year, it marked the end for his para-military brigade.

Rather ironically, Mosley embarked on a peace campaign throughout the war and was finally interned on May 1940 along with his wife Diana Mitford and other active fascists in the grounds of Holloway prison. After the War the baron rejoined active politics and formed the Union Movement, calling for a European Super-State covering the continent of Europe (known as Europe a Nation), and later attempted to launch a National Party of Europe to this end. This time his fascism was expressed through Synarchy.

At his core, Mosley had a genuine desire to better peoples’ lives, but his powerful drive was also technocratic in that he had a precise understanding of the bureaucratic and economic machinery of his day. [10]His socialism was based on re-imagining the state towards a greater British Empire that moved into Europe and further colonised Africa as “the breadbasket for the West.”sup>[11] Thus he had a lot in common with the likes of Cecil Rhodes and his later Round Table compatriots and would be very influential for authoritarian personalities who embraced fascism in the future. Though overt environmental sympathies were missing in Mosley’s political ambitions his supporters made up for it. In fact, there have been a raft of individuals rather than groups who have both a history of environmentalist views being held by the far-right in the UK.


Sir Oswald Mosely and Diana circa 1936

Jorian Jenks was a farmer, environmentalist and political activist, serving as Mosley’s agricultural advisor in the BUF. He was “one of the most dominant figures in the development of the organic movement” [12]and yet another of the fascists who found themselves detained by the government in 1940, this time at Walton Prison and released a year later. It was after the war that Jenks moved “…  from politics to ‘meta-politics’ evolving a more spiritual ‘spiritual ecologism’ which would address the cause of national disintegration and replenish the bond between man and soil.” [13]

Niece of Lord Arthur Balfour of the Balfour declaration fame, and English farmer and organic farming pioneer, the visionary Lady Eve Balfour and her Soil Association provided Jenks with an outlet to pursue the science and practice of organic farming. He served as editorial secretary and published the association’s journal Mother Earth through which his eco-fascist views could be heard much to the delight (or consternation) of those reading the material. He stated: “An anti-modernist philosophy embracing land reform the paramountcy of agriculture; the subordination of mechanisation to organicism; the localisation of economies and the cultivation of the consciousness of the ties of blood and soil.” Jenks saw the Soil Association policy as “pure Aryan”… “though they don’t make a point of it.” [14]

Despite Jenk’s clear fascism his contribution to agricultural policy and the scientific experiments exploring the differences between organic and non-organic foods were extremely influential, as were his warnings on the dangers of chemical fertilisers and pesticides. He found his way to the Soil Association via Kinship in Husbandry which he had joined in 1942. This group had been founded by Rolf Gardiner with support from H. J. Massingham and Lord Lymington. It was essentially a platform for eco-fascist principles which had bubbled up into the Soil Association to the extent that Gardiner became co-founder; such was his passion for the future of organic farming. He was also an avid English folk dancer, naturist  and active in far right politics. Gardiner’s passion for English folk dancing helped to revive the Morris dance which was inflicted on Germany and the emerging Hitler Youth of the time. Despite the homoerotic overtones he insisted this was a thoroughly masculine and virile ritual of pagan nature worship. (The latter was part of the Third Reich’s inspirations, though it remains to be seen if they were impressed by the Morris dancing…)


D.H. Lawrence

A one-time Kibbo Kift member as a Cambridge University student Gardiner had also greatly admired D.H. Lawrence  whom he visited in 1928 while in Switzerland. Their teacher-student relationship blossomed into a long lasting friendship that was based on:

“… a shared faith in the organic which was by no means confined to their descriptions of the landscape or nature. By seeking organic solutions to the problems of contemporary life – emphasising the important of ‘natural’ hierarchies, for instance, or the ‘rootedness’ of culture in the native soil, or the ties that bind language, culture and racial destiny – Lawrence and Gardiner found themselves drawing from the same wellspring which nourished Völkisch and fascist movements. Indeed in 1953, Bertrand Russell famously wrote that Lawrence’s views led straight to Auschwitz.”  [15]

Although highly ironic coming from Mr. Russell who was hoisted on the same humanist-Fabian pole, the above passage sums up perfectly the problem of the naturalists and those sensitive to the destruction of Nature who may in some instances also harbour authoritarian traits: they inevitably gravitated towards the rich history of the Völkisch and the New Order proposed by National Socialism. It was both a product of the times and a trigger which seemed to draw out the latent fascism waiting to leak from otherwise natural and healthy principles.

Writer, naturalist and farmer Henry Williamson who wrote Tarka the Otter (1927) and many other classics, supported the BUF and was greatly impressed after visiting the National Socialist Congress in 1935. (We don’t know what he thought of Gardiner’s Morris dancing, however). His growing fascist views, led him to be detained during World War II, like Mosley, under the Defence Regulation 18B. He contributed to the Anglo-German Review for whom “… the Anglo-German sympathizers of the period were united by a common interest in nature and ecology.” [16] The same Germanic sun-worshipping and pagan revivalism was found in his writings most particularly where the ancient light of the sun represented the real meaning of his own existence by illuminating his ancestral past and revealing the truth of redemption through Nature.” [17]

Like many artists of post-World War I his experiences of death and horror culminating in the Christmas truce of 1918 helped him to see Germans and the Nature worship embedded in their culture as a new light for the world. He had been seduced by the seemingly vibrant economic and cultural renaissance best symbolised by the Hitler youth with “faces that looked to be breathing extra oxygen; people free from mental fear.” Williamson was certain that National Socialism was the answer and echoed D. H Lawrence’s obsession with “blood and soil” believing that they represented: “… a race that moves on the poles of mystic, sensual delight. Every gesture is a gesture from the blood, every expression a symbolic utterance … Everything is of the blood, of the senses.” [18]

He seemed to remain a fan despite the failure of the Nazi ideal by protesting against the unjust nature of the Nuremburg trials. Although these were indeed a showpiece to cover up the fact that many of the Nazis Elite were absorbed into the American National Security State, it nevertheless showed that his sympathies remained strong. It is this paradoxical eco-fascist romanticism as sweet as syrup yet cast in molten metal that often remains impervious to any change. Just as the seeds of psychopathy have long been exposed to the right Anglo-American conditions for various strains to multiply like fungi on an otherwise healthy tree, this ecological inversion has continued from its romantic pre-war passion to much more subtle expressions. Similar to eugenics, it has insinuated itself into the fabric of society with respectable sounding names, sacred philosophies and philanthropic causes. But it is essentially the same ponerisation, yearning to control human beings, now under the cover of Gaia. [19]

That is not to say that all environmentalism has at its root latent fascism, only that we need to be aware of this inversion – roots can grow in a variety of soils given the right conditions.

In 1970, the first issue of The Ecologist magazine appeared in the UK, with genuinely fascinating and productive articles. Nevertheless, its underlying theme of “humans as virus” and ecological parasites was common throughout and a direct link back to fascistic beliefs, albeit largely unconscious.  The magazine’s founder, the late Edward Goldsmith, displayed the same beliefs as Prince Philip Duke of Edinburgh, in that humanity was a disease which had to be halted. Like so many who seemed to have authoritarian tendencies he displayed a frequent wish to control and micro-manage the lives of others. Government, in Goldsmith view should mimic his own patriarchal leanings and become a “schoolmaster” to “an ever more demanding and self-indulgent electorate.” In other words, we all needed to be horse-whipped into submission so that we may break free from our wicked ways. Indeed, Goldsmith went further, suggesting  that: “… radical change in our way of looking at man’s relationship with his environment, … must involve taking measures that in many cases are contrary to our accepted values. Thus, to control population we may have to interfere with ‘personal liberty’, while to reduce economic expansion we are forced to curb ‘the march of ‘progress.’” [20]

It is hear that we come to the crux of the problem with such thinking since it perfectly aligns with elite beliefs that demand populations are suppressed and managed in much the same way as Nature has been through the centuries.  The dividing line between co-creating with the planet and bending it to our will is blurred. The wild sanctity and purity of the biosphere is set against the population who are despoilers and viri – a disease to cut out so that Nature may reign once more. The problem is clear. Such binary thinking can very easily mixed up with good intentions leading catastrophic results as we have seen time and time again. The only disease is that of ponerological strains within humanity whose job it is to subvert and invert.  Ideologies born from socio-economic distress and spiritual vacuity are blended in the minds of authoritarians and their followers and grafted onto passions and beliefs which would have otherwise remained connected to a benign and rejuvenating force.

2013-05-27 17.21.56

© infrakshun

Germany also had a pronounced tradition of controlling Nature. For over 250 years it had radically drained mash and fenlands, exploited vast tracts of Bavarian moorland, managed rivers and built dams in high valleys. The impact of hydrological dams after the 1750s was enormous, changing the face of the German landscape. Where once there was fear of the vast tracts of wilderness, for some they became the new source of romanticism, especially when they began to disappear. This was paradoxical and as historian David Blackbourne asks: “Why did the pace of moorland drainage and colonization increase after the First World War? Because Germans began to see themselves after the Treaty of Versailles as a ‘people without space,’ a Völkohne Raum, so that every cultivated acre counted.” [21]

The Conquest of the Europe meant the conquest of nature which seemed to run counter to the ecological ethos that Nazism promoted. Historians Groninga and Joachim Wolscheke-Bulmanha wrote in an article in Planning Perspectives journal of 1987: “… to explain the destruction of the countryside and environmental damage, without questioning the German people’s bond to nature, could only be done by not analysing environmental damage in a societal context and by refusing to understand them as an expression of conflicting social interests. Had this been done, it would have led to criticism of National Socialism itself since that was not immune to such forces.” [22]

Though it was not to be.

At the same time technocratic and authoritarian, in order for Nature to be returned to the romantic myth of Germanic perfection the space had be created for the German people as guardians and worshippers of Nature so that the former Edenic state could return. Once cleansed of “weeds” and the uniformity of human design the superiority of the Aryan race could stand at the head of a New World Order which would necessarily mean harmony between land and people, inseparable in the National Socialist mind.

The man who had most power in the Reich second to Hitler was probably SS Field Marshall Heinrich Himmler who epitomised classic eco-fascist ideology when he mused:

“The peasant of our racial stock has always carefully endeavoured to increase the natural powers of the soil, plants, and animals, and to preserve the balance of the whole of nature. For him, respect for divine creation is the measure of all culture. If, therefore, the new Lebensräume (living spaces) are to become a homeland for our settlers, the planned arrangement of the landscape to keep it close to nature is a decisive prerequisite. It is one of the bases for fortifying the German Völk.” [23]

The adaptation of biological concepts to social systems tied up with romantic verbiage led to the strategic importance of environmental resources. This was the official policy of Lebensräume or “Living space”. Expansionist politics would mean that the Balkans would be chosen as the provider and coincide with the extermination of the Slavic races, which they deemed inferior. As Hitler stated: “Every healthy Völk sees the right to expansion of its living space as something natural.” [24]

Land, conquest and ethnic cleansing became inextricably linked with a spiritual mission.

By the time Ernst Haeckel had invented the term “ecology” there was the appearance at least, of a “… scientifically based ecological holism with Völkisch social views,” which consisted of a potent mixture of “… nineteenth century cultural prejudices, romantic obsessions with purity [and] anti-Enlightenment sentiment,” fused with “aggressive nationalism, mystically charged racism, and environmentalist predilections.” [25]Haeckel was also responsible for merging Social Darwinism and ecology into his own philosophy of “Monism” which provided an outlet and scientific cover for his belief in Nordic racial superiority. The Third Reich’s obsession with the occult was in large part due to the Germanic nature worship and which had given rise to revivalism and green politics in the intelligentsia. This was reflected in Haeckel’s decision to join the Thule Gesellschaft or Thule Society founded by Bavarian occultist and freemason Baron Rudolf von Sebottendorff an instrumental in the formation of the Nazi Party. [26] The Society was the organisation that sponsored the Deutsche Arbeiterpartei (DAP), later reorganized by Adolf Hitler into the National Socialist German Workers’ Party (NSDAP or Nazi Party).

The Youth movement of the Weimar Republic or the Wandervögel (‘wandering free spirits’) was a fusion of almost every type of transcendent, occult and folklore ideology that was available. Reason and rational discourse were rejected. It was effectively a nature cult elevating peasantry to mythical status joined with the authoritarian impetus of the State which was needed to show people the way. Peter Staudenmaier believes this heralded an important: “… shift from nature worship to Führer worship,” where National Socialism’s adoption of environmentalist themes of nationalism and sacred naturalism “… was a crucial factor in its rise to popularity and state of power.” [27]

The foundation of these beliefs was made concrete through two levels of ecological support within the core of the Third Reich. These were at the ministerial and planning and administrative levels, evidence of which can be found in the archives of the Reich. Agrarian romanticism and anti-urbanism was dominant and central in Nazi ideology so that most of the leading members were ecologically aware or had some overlapping naturist belief. 60 percent of the membership rolls of several Naturschutz (nature protection) organizations during the Weimar era had joined the National Socialist Party in 1939. [28]

Gleichklang Alfred Bernert‘Gleichklang’ by Alfred Bernert

Hitler as a vegetarian and an animal lover was a believer in the Völk and the value of Nature but he was also a pragmatic strategist. However, three other notable players close to Hitler represented various shades of dark green belief within the Third Reich.  His deputy, Rudolf Hess, was an enthusiastic fervent devotee of naturism, anthroposophy and homeopathy. Working for Hesse were leading ecologists who produced draft reports on the necessity for “organic, ecologically sound land use and planning.” Hess’s top land planning officer called soil: “… the foundation of the formation of the community”.[29]

Hermann Göering was a nature conservationist, animal husbandrist and the Reich’s Chief Huntsman. He favoured the forest over the rights of the farmers and their fields. He organised many International Hunting Exhibitions for the wealthy. Hitler once referred to these groups as “the green Freemasonry”. As Air Force commander he discontinued the use of animals to test weapons and used people instead. [30]

Reichsführer-SS Heinrich Himmler had a degree in agriculture, was a farmer, an occultist and neo-pagan. Power over the concentration camps, death squads and the liquidation of the Jews and other minorities lay at his door. And he, like Hitler, valued animals over people, being responsible for the Third Reich’s anti-vivisection legislation which was the first law of its kind. While Hitler soared into the mysticism of the Völk, Himmler’s beliefs veered towards theosophy, anthroposophy, astrology, Wicca, herbalism, organicism, astrology and homeopathy. He was the first true New Age Nazi with power at his hands, his interests of which inspired him to follow in Blavatsky’s footsteps by sending an SS team to Tibet in 1938 led by zoologist Ernst Schäfer, officially to conduct anthropological experiments, unofficially to open a dialogue between Tibetan Monks of Agharti which were following the “Black arts.” [31] (See: The Light Bringer)

With the infiltration of the Agriculture Ministry and National Food Estate by the SS under Himmler’s say so. When East Europe would be conquered and ethnically cleansed of undesirables a new race of farmers would be deposited on the land and given free farms, provided they passed the eugenics check list set up by the newly created Racial Office was created within the SS. [32]

Therefore three main green beliefs were personified within the Reich: The Aristocratic-freemasonic eco-conservativism of Göering; the folklore, anthroposophy and organicism of Hesse and the occult-neo-pagan beliefs of Himmler.

By 1937 Poland was under Himmler’s settlement program using state funds and seized land while Race and Settlement officers were busy searching for “… farms that could be farmed organically”. After all, it was only SS farmers who could understand “…the superiority of organic farming methods as opposed to artificial fertilisers”. And Chemical fertilizers were criminalised under Himmler’s land planning laws. [33] The SS-owned Institute for the Study of Medicinal and Alimentary Plants, (ISMAP) was an SS owned research organisation where German scientists, physicians, botanists, and chemists conducted research into medicinal properties of plants and many other agrarian experiments. An experimental farm called “Plantage” was based in the surrounding fields of the Dachau death camp and was the brainchild of Himmler but operated by ISMAP.

Marcus J. Smith, a US military doctor who was assigned to Dachau after it was liberated, was told by the former inmates that:

“… many ambitious projects were undertaken, such as the production of artificial pepper, the evaluation of seasoning mixtures, the extraction of Vitamin C from gladioli and other flowers, the potentiation of plant growth by hormone-enriched manure, and of most importance to Germany, the development of synthetic fertilizer. As a profitable side-line, garlic, malva, and other medicinal plants, and vegetable seeds, were cultivated by the prisoners and then sold; the profits went to the SS.” [34]

Other experimental farms were set up at Auschwitz concentration camp and Mauthausen concentration camps in Austria where experiments were conducted by the SS on different kinds of diets including “famine experiments” on Russian POWs. [35]

In 1935, Himmler, founded the Nazi think-tank Ahnenerbe to “study society for Intellectual Ancient History.” The goal was to find confirmation of the myths and philosophies relating to the Aryan race and Nordic populations from an anthropological and cultural perspective. With Himmler’s fascination with the Catharism, Norse mythology and the Knights Templars it led him to expend time and money attempting to uncover many of the alleged secrets behind the legends of the Holy Grail. Indeed, many voyages to a variety of destinations across the globe were carried out and funded by the SS. Among a handful of founding members included SS-Obergruppenführer Richard Walther Darré, Reich Minister of Food and Agriculture, animal breeder and one of the leading promoters of Nazi “blood and soil” ideology.

As a young man Darré was another Völkisch acolyte who joined the Artaman League, the same back-to-the-land movement of which Himmler was a member. This eventually led him to concoct the theory that the future of the Nordic race was deeply connected to soil and which subsequently led to “Blut and Boden” or the “Blood and Soil” meme. According to Nazi ideology, while the relationship to the environment over time becomes embedded in the consciousness of the dweller and vice versa, Germans, due to their Nordic ancestry had a peculiar, almost mystical connection to the land. German soil was sacred, in direct opposition to the “wandering Jew.” Nordicism or “Nordic Theory” claims that a Nordic race, within the greater Caucasian race constituted a master race, and it is this ethnic purity that Darré believed could be found once again.


Richard Walther Darré, Reich Reichsminister of Food. “The unity of blood and soil must be restored” (photo: wikipedia)

“The unity of blood and soil must be restored” was a phrase that resonated throughout the Gothic halls of the Reich and came from Darré’s 1930 book called Neuadel aus Blut und Boden (A New Nobility Based On Blood And Soil) describing a systemic eugenics program partnered with careful environmental awareness which would clear up the problem of racial impurity and return Germany to its glorious ancient past. With a keen interest and training in farming, animal husbandry and breeding Darré merely adapted his knowledge into the human world and injected it with the usual racist ideology. Geo-political conquest was justified through: “The concept of Blood and Soil [which] gives us the moral right to take back as much land in the East as is necessary to establish a harmony between the body of our Völk and the geopolitical space.” [36]

He was also a fan of the theosophical offshoot of Anthroposophy established by Rudolf Steiner despite National Socialist ideologues being hostile to the movement. Unfortunately for Darré, anthroposophy considered “Blood, Race and Folk” as primitive instincts that must be overcome. [37] Clearly, this short-coming was not enough to quash his enthusiasm for anthroposophical principles with its emphasis on Nature, art, medicine and biodynamic agriculture all based on the theory that there is an unseen spiritual world comprising a variety of “subtle realms.” As bio-dynamic farming involved a holistic view of organic agriculture the rejection of chemical fertilisers and insecticides and by extension, the trappings of industrial capitalism it was tailor-made to elevate the mythical status of the German peasant and therefore be absorbed into Nazi ideology. Racial health and ecological sustainability would be assured. Darré even “… commissioned a top anthroposophist to start a bio-dynamic farm at Marienhole. [East Germany] The farm’s journal, Demeter, had the motto: “Health through Natural Living – Harmony between Blood, Soil and Cosmos.” [38]

The anthroposophist in question, Dr. Edhart Bartsch and his biodynamic farm was run by the research group “The Imperial Association for Biodynamic Agriculture” and was closely followed by Darré and another anthroposophical convert Rudolf Hess both of whom had substantial success in pioneering bio-dynamic principles and products. However, as anthroposophy was not following Nazi principles it was all wound up by 1941. [39] The large-scale organic farming methods and ecologically sound farming practices which Darré pioneered are still in evidence in Germany and much of Europe today.

It seems eco-fascism in Nazi ideology, while no means embraced by all, (Goebbels, Boorman, Speer) was nevertheless crucial in the implementation of Nazi designs. By using potent myths and archetypes of Nature and race which had particular appeal in the German psyche these acted as part of the moral imperative to save not just the German nation but the world. It became a mystical dogma of the most virulent kind hijacked by psychopaths happy to use any and all ideologies to manifest Pathocracy. On the one hand, you had uniforms and jackboots, on the other, a symbolic return to green wellies and haystacks. Manly blond, blue-eyed Supermen working in the fields in manly union; the conservation of nature and animal husbandry on the one hand and on the other: the systematic destruction of land and people if they did not conform. It was a mass psychosis predicated on preference for ideals which have very little to do with objective reality. These are the same influences at work today the only difference being that they are more subtle and sophisticated in their manifestations.

The ideological marriage between National Socialism, nature conservation, ecology and green issues is a cast iron one. Fascism goes hand in hand with green issues and as such we need to be more prudent when those issues become politicised by any one organisation or grouping. The Nazis were a huge, technicolor warning to that end.

Once you had a confluence of Social Darwinism, politics, a green culture and occult ideology which busily distorted an otherwise healthy attention to nature then it is inevitable that it would continue to be used as a pretext for many other directives for social control. “The Natural Order” would be synonymous with a “New World Order” where “scientific technique” of race-biology would force man into their “natural” roles. Or, in the words of the National Socialist Teachers Association: “National Socialism is politically applied biology.”  [40]



[1] Vitalism. In E. Craig (Ed.), William Bechtel and Robert C. Richardson, Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy. London: Routledge, 1998 |
[2] Liu, J.; Dietz, Thomas; Carpenter, Stephen R.; Folke, Carl; Alberti, Marina; Redman, Charles L.; Schneider, Stephen H.; Ostrom, Elinor et al. (2009). “Coupled human and natural systems”. AMBIO: A Journal of the Human Environment 36.
[3] Blood and Soil, Richard Walter Darre and Hitler’s ‘Green Party’, Published by Kensall Press, Buckinghamshire, 1985 | Ecology in the 20th Century, A History, Yale University Press, New Haven, 1989 | The Fading of the Greens, Yale University Press, New Haven, 1994 | All by Anna Bramwell.
[4] Ibid.
[5] Ibid.
[6] Ibid.
[7] ‘Fascist Ecology: The ‘Green Wing’ of the Nazi Party and its Historical Antecedents’ By Peter Staudenmaier taken from Eco-Fascism: Lessons from the German Experience. By Janet Beihl and Peter Staudenmaier. 1995. Published by AK Press. | ISBN 1-873176 73 2. |
[8] Mosley’s name can be seen in a list of Fabians from Fabian News and Fabian Society Annual Report 1929–31.
[9] p.44; Mosley By Nigel Jones, Published by Lite & Times Haus Publishing, 2004 | ISBN-10: 1904341098
[10] Sir Oswald Mosley and the British Union of Fascists by Robert Edwards, Published by League Enterprises, 2002. (introduction) |
[11] p.64; Very Deeply Dyed in Black: Sir Oswald Mosley by Graham Macklin, Published by I.B.Tauris, 2007. | ISBN-10: 1845112849
[12] R. More-Collyer, ‘Towards “Mother Earth”: Jorian Jenks, Organicism, the Right and the British Union of Fascists’, Journal of Contemporary History, 2004, (p.39)
[13] op. cit. Macklin (p.64)
[14] Ibid. (p.65)
[15] p.6; Rolf Gardiner: Folk, Nature and Culture in In Interwar Britain by Matthew Jefferies, Mike Tyldesley2011 | ISBN-10: 1409412040
[16] op. cit. Bramwell, Ecology, (p. 173-4)
[17] ‘Henry Williamson: Nature’s Visionary’ by Mark Deavin, National Vanguard Magazine, Number 117 March-April 1997.
[18] Ibid.
[19] “The Gaia theory was developed in the late 1960’s by Dr. James Lovelock, a British Scientist and inventor, shortly after his work with NASA in determining that there was probably no life on Mars. The theory gained an early supporter in Lynn Margulis, a microbiologist at the University of Massachusetts. […] “The Gaia Theory posits that the organic and inorganic components of Planet Earth have evolved together as a single living, self-regulating system. It suggests that this living system has automatically controlled global temperature, atmospheric content, ocean salinity, and other factors, that maintains its own habitability. In a phrase, “life maintains conditions suitable for its own survival.” In this respect, the living system of Earth can be thought of analogous to the workings of any individual organism that regulates body temperature, blood salinity, etc. So, for instance, even though the luminosity of the sun – the Earth’s heat source – has increased by about 30 percent since life began almost four billion years ago, the living system has reacted as a whole to maintain temperatures at levels suitable for life.”-
[20] ‘Living with Nature’ by Edward Goldsmith, The Ecologist July 1, 1970 (
[21] p.5; The Conquest Of Nature: Water, Landscape, and the Making of Modern Germany, by David Blackbourn, Published by Pimlico, 2007 | ISBN-10: 0712667261
[22] ‘Politics, planning and the protection of nature: Political abuse of early ecological ideas in Germany, 1933–45’ by Gert Gröninga & Joachim Wolschke‐Bulmahna Planning Perspectives Volume 2, Issue 2, 1987.
[23] Peter Staudenmaier Quoting from Heinz Haushofer, Ideengeschichte der Agrarwirtschaft und Agrarpolitik im deutschen Sprachgebiet, Band II, München, 1958, (p. 266).
[24] Hitler Speech, Völkischer Beobachter, 11 November 1931.
[25] Ibid.
[26] Ibid.
[27] op.cit; Staudenmaier.
[28] p.107;The Environmental Movement in Germany: Prophets and Pioneers, 1871–1971 by Raymond H. Dominick III Indiana University Press, 1992.
[29] op.cit. Bramwell; Ecology (p. 197-8)
[30] pp 182-190; Goring, a Biography, by David Irving. Published William Morrow and Co., New York, 1989.
[31] Himmler’s Crusade: The True Story of the 1938 Nazi Expedition into Christopher Hale, London: Transworld Publishers | ISBN 0-593-04952-7.
[32] op. cit. Bramwell, Blood and Soil (p. 132-8)
[33] op. cit. Bramwell, Ecology, (p. 202-4) | 0p. cit. Bramwell, Blood and Soil (p.132-38)
[34] ‘Work in the Dachau camp’
[35] ‘Using Science For The Greater Evil,’ Newsweek, Dec 1, 2003.
[36] op. cit. Janet Biehl, Peter Staudenmaier (p.19).
[37] Report of the SD-Hauptamtes Berlin: “Anthroposophy”, May 1936, BAD Z/B I 90.
[38] op. cit. Bramwell, Blood, (p. 203).
[39] | “Biodynamic Agriculture: The Journey from Koberwitz to the World, 1924-1938”, By John Paul, Journal of Organic Systems, 2011, 6(1):27-41.
[40] Hans Schemm, Founder and Head of the National Socialist Teachers Association from Ernst Haeckel’s The History of Creation. 2 vols. (New York: D. Appleton, 1876), vol. I, p. 11.


World Revolution III: The Courage to Critique

“Deluded people. You must understand that there exists a conspiracy in favor of despotism, and against liberty, of incapacity against talent, of vice against virtue, or ignorance against light! … Every species of error which afflicts the earth, every half-baked idea, every invention serves to fit the doctrines of the Illuminati …The aim is universal domination.”

Marquis de Luchet Essay on the Sect of the Illuminati January, 1789.

The Marquis De Luchet was initially in favour of the French Revolution until presumably joined the dots regarding his friend the Comte de Mirabeau and realised all was not well. He wasn’t the only one who thought the Revolution had been hijacked away from genuine grassroots uprising. Discerning politicians in America and Britain were also sounding the alarm, but these were lone voices in a sea of romantic resolve. The Irish philosopher and Member of Parliament Edmund Burke * issued stern warnings during the onset of the Revolution and incurred the wrath of the public and many of his colleagues as a result.


               Edmund Burke

Burke was an expert on change. He knew intuitively that radical change, too swift and sweeping, frequently led to the very same dynamics of tyranny. While he had given his support to the American Revolution, the causes of which in his opinion, were of an entirely different nature, he felt it duty bound to resist supporting the French people for reasons that will be become apparent.

Much like the media of today, hit pieces appeared in the press which were controlled by Illuminati agents hiding behind the cover of liberal sentiments. Suddenly, Burke’s once popular standing was swiftly reduced to rubble after his publication of Reflections on the Revolution in France (1790). The treatise is now widely seen as the statesman’s defining moment for its erudition, prescience and wisdom. It consisted of a correspondence with “a Paris gentleman” a French aristocrat named Charles-Jean-François Depont who had asked Burke for his impressions of the Revolution. This resulted in two letters, the latter of which became Reflections.

As a protestant and a Whig, his conservatism was just and represented the benevolent aspect of a capitalism that grew into something quite different in this century. Liberty and power were entwined and represented a force for good or for ill depending on who was at the helm. A cardinal rule for Burke and for those of us paying attention to politics subsequently, is to recognise: “… in situations where those who appear the most stirring in the scene may possibly not be the real movers.” [1] Early on in the midst of Revolution euphoria he saw the much trumpeted “liberty” as counterfeit and cautioned people to see the Revolution for what it was – a carefully engineered coup against certain sections of society. (Such a plea for caution was levelled by many observers at the onset of Barack Obama’s election both in terms of the scale of expenditure involved and the “yes we can” Obamamania marketing which ensued. Obviously, not much has changed.

Burke wrote:

When I see the spirit of liberty in action, I see a strong principle at work; and this, for a while, is all I can possibly know of it. The wild gas, the fixed air, is plainly broke loose; but we ought to suspend our judgment until the first effervescence is a little subsided, till the liquor is cleared, and until we see something deeper than the agitation of a troubled and frothy surface. I must be tolerably sure, before I venture publicly to congratulate men upon a blessing, that they have really received one.

Flattery corrupts both the receiver and the giver, and adulation is not of more service to the people than to kings. I should, therefore, suspend my congratulations on the new liberty of France until I was informed how it had been combined with government, with public force, with the discipline and obedience of armies, with the collection of an effective and well-distributed revenue, with morality and religion, with the solidity of property, with peace and order, with civil and social manners. All these (in their way) are good things, too, and without them liberty is not a benefit whilst it lasts, and is not likely to continue long. [2] [Emphasis mine]

And he was right.

 Delacroix, Eugene Liberty Leading The People, 1830 , Paris, Louvre

Liberty Leading The People, Eugene Delacroix, 1830, Paris, Louvre

Burke was also acutely aware of the significance of the French Revolution that could remake Europe and even the world under tyrannical lines: “It appears to me as if I were in a great crisis, not of the affairs of France alone, but of all Europe, perhaps of more than Europe.” He was fully cognizant of the nature of the usurpers of power that were inspired by such thinkers as Rousseau and Voltaire who were avowed rationalists and believers in a ruling Elite – the forerunners a Hegelian World Order. Many of the the Age of Reason and the Enlightenment pioneers represented dangerous abstractions to traditionalists like Burke who knew that society was a complex organism that did not operate on simplistic laws which benefited a ruling class grounded in man’s power rather than God’s. He had no time for those who believed in authoritarian rule whether a divinely appointed monarchic Establishment or an Elite ruling class. Similarly, if a government was oppressive then the people should oppose it, therefore, rather than open revolution he preferred gradual constitutional reform.

Burke was well aware of the Order of Illuminati often referring to them as the “Philosophe sect” in many of his writings. He criticised the Enlightenment’s “social contract” which was a socio-political theory based on Goethe’s Faustian pact. One has to have consented, either explicitly or tacitly, to give up one’s freedoms in exchange for what little rights may be left even though they may have been slowly eroded down to nothing, a process playing out in the West today, particularly in Britain and the United States. This surrendering to authority may be a Presidential court of law or the consensus of a majority. Either way, it is a backdoor to tyranny which is exactly why the Illuminati promoted this line of thinking.

The social contract was very much en vogue at the time. Burke granted credence to the idea that society is a contract: “But it is not a partnership in things subservient only to the gross animal existence of a temporary and perishable nature” rather, it is: “a partnership not only between those who are living, but between those who are living, those who are dead, and those who are to be born.” He makes a pointed reference to the cold, rationalism of the Illuminists and the beliefs of materialism, deism and atheism that they were encouraging. He makes a case for the complexities of history and the links that humans created over time with a rich tapestry of social values which cannot be suddenly erased in favour of something perceived as socially responsible and harmonious, least of all by a sect which represented the “public” image of a far greater threat than even these lone voices realised.

Burke’s views also differed from Thomas Hobbes’ theory which effectively saw man and women as numbers on an economic chart to move around at will presaging the game theorists of later years. And here one can see why the Irish philosopher was so fiercely ridiculed on orders of Illuminists: he was the polar opposite of their ideals and precisely what was needed in large numbers to counter their plans.


giloriglil.jpg“The Reign of Terror” commenced from 1793 until 1794 under the dictatorship of Maximilien Robespierre and the Jacobin mob. There is a general consensus from past statistics of the Terror, the causes of which came from the Orwellian-sounding Committee of Public Safety and The Revolutionary Tribunal and which stood at approximately 16,000 and 41,000 deaths. Historian Dr Marisa Linton of the Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences at Kingston University quoted a figure of 16,594 death sentences and a total which excluded those “… that died without formal death sentences imposed in a court of law.” And further: “Many perished in overcrowded and unsanitary prisons while awaiting trial. Many of those who died in the civil wars and federalist revolts did not have their deaths officially recorded.” [3]

However, Linton continues:

“… recent estimates of the number of deaths in the Vendée have caused historians to revise that figure considerably. One historian, Pierre Chaunu, spoke of the Vendée with deliberate provocation as a ‘genocide’ and claimed that 500,000 rebels had died. More realistic estimates, such as that by Jean-Clément Martin, suggest up to 250,000 insurgents and 200,000 republicans met their deaths in a war in which both sides suffered appalling atrocities. Another group that was decimated by the unleashing of the Terror was that of the revolutionaries themselves. Successive revolutionary factions fell victim to the Terror that, in many cases, they had themselves helped to orchestrate.” [4]

Apart from other methods of execution such as hanging, firing squad and even drowning, the gruesome, mechanical evil of the guillotine sliced through the necks of anyone who disagreed with the Revolution. It was the manner in which this “social uprising” was conducted which cast a dark stain across its avowed principles. Many victims were also set upon and murdered by death squads which roamed the cities of France often as out-sourced mercenaries. As a microcosm of the Spanish Inquisition, the Nazi holocaust, the English Witch-hunts or Stalinist rule, Revolutionary France was not a place to be for any true progressive, peasant or aristocrat. Many were murdered through rumour, accusation or the denouncement of a business competitor or creditor even if entirely innocent.[5]


Anonymous print: “It is dreadful but necessary” (C’est affreux mais necessaire”) from the Journal d’Autre Monde 1794

Of the thousands to be condemned to the guillotine 8 percent (1031) were aristocrats, 6 percent (674) clergy, 14 percent (2923) middle class, and a whopping 72 percent (7878) were workers or peasants accused of hoarding, evading the draft, desertion or rebellion.[6] This tells you something important about the nature of the “People’s Revolution” in itself, namely, it was a text book example of despotic rule.

The Committee for Public Safety – a classic example of paramoralistic wording – allowed revolutionary tribunals to convict people without hearing evidence and which was called the Law of Prairial. In September 1793, the Convention passed a law called the Law of Suspects where the “public safety” actually meant people could now be put in prison without trial: “Suspects shall be locked up …. The proof necessary to convict enemies … can be any kind of evidence … If proof already exists there need be no further witnesses …The penalty for all offences under the law of revolutionary tribunal is death.” [7] It didn’t really matter who you were or what you did, once in the mouth of the machine there was little anyone could do. Very often French folk were condemned to death and executed the same day.

The following examples indicate the arbitrary nature of accusations which resulted in death:

Jean-Baptiste Henry, aged 18, journeyman tailor, convicted of having sawn down a tree of liberty, executed 6th September, 1793.

Francois Bertrand, aged 37, publican, convicted of having provided the defenders of the country with sour wine, condemned and executed the same day.

Henriette Francoise Marboeuf, aged 55, convicted of having hoped for the arrival of the Austrians and Prussians and of keeping food for them, condemned to death and executed the same day. [8]

As the terror came to gradual end in July 1794, revolutionary surveillance committees (Comité de surveillance révolutionnaire) with oversight by district committees continued the formula of repression for many years after.

There is ample evidence to suggest the eradication of counter-revolutionaries was part of a larger policy of depopulating France of “enemies of the people” which meant everyone who was not of the same mind. Author Nesta Webster suggested that the almost unimaginable slaughter of hundreds of thousands of French citizens during the Terror was indeed a deliberate campaign of genocide, an 18th Century example of an Elite belief which is so prominent and popular in political, academic and UN-led institutions today. Though conceived as part of the Committee’s plan, it has the classic hallmarks of the occult Establishment clique and so many World State believers: in order to return to an Eden ruled by a superior class of demi-Gods or Olympians a periodic culling of the rabble was necessary by whatever means available at the time.

As Steve Bonta describes in his article on effectively “Two Revolutions”:

The mad Marat, for whatever reason, had an idee fixe that demanded the massacre of 260,000 victims. But his blood lust was soon surpassed by his depraved “democratic” confreres. Jean Bon St. Andre averred that France’s population of 25 million “must be reduced by more than half.” Collot d’Herbois declared it must be reduced to 10 million. Carrier insisted only 6 million should survive. Guffoy said 5 million, whilst Robespierre is reported to have said that a population of 2 million would be more than enough. “Let us make a cemetery of France rather than not regenerate her after our manner,” declared Carrier. He and his confederates proceeded to do just that. After their abominable massacres in La Verdee, the revolutionists proudly reported back to the Convention in Paris, “we have left nothing behind us but ashes and piles of corpses.” All of this a century and a half before the likes of Stalin, Hitler, Mao, Pol Pot, and other 20th-century genocidal dictators made mass extermination a jaded political cliché. [9]

Bonta shows us that the reality of an Age of Enlightenment was in fact a quality of “illumination” which set alight only certain aspects of human endeavour in the modern age. Moreover, it’s rapid descent into destruction showed it’s shadow side in dramatic fashion. It was: “… a Revolution that began with a proud rejection of Deity, and worship of the State, turned into a hideous, blood-soaked parody of civilization, where technology and reason were applied to mass murder in the name of enlightened social engineering.” This set the stage for a fractal replication within a Western geo-political context.

Indeed, does this not describe the United States and NATO expansionism of the last fifty years?

Once again, the Jacobin Club was host to a surfeit of brutal psychopaths more than willing to take on the blood-letting. Sensing predation in the air, sniffing out victims with a super-natural instinct, another pattern of unrelenting horror was st in motion, allowing their true selves to manifest with impunity since their actions were fully mandated by the authorities. Sadistic individuals like Jean Paul Marat and his army of “Marats” or “Mulattos” were at the forefront of this mass murder, a logical result of authoritarian followers and essential psychopaths being given – quite literally – a free Reign. Marat was only among a number of anti-human individuals who undertook their tasks with extraordinary relish and were deemed useful for suppressing dissent and revolt against the Convention. Massacres and mass executions began to appear on a scale that harked back to the decimation of Cathar credents by the Inquisition in Languedoc.

Of particular note was one Jean-Baptiste Carrier who became notorious for for creating a variety of horrific ways for victims to be put to death. One method which he favoured on more than one occasion was to cram large numbers of people into boats with trap doors in the floors which he ordered sent out into the Loire to be sunk. This manner of mass death was frequently employed against the clergy whom he hated with a passion and in one instance exclaimed: “I have never laughed so much as when I saw the grimaces those priests made as they died.” So many bodies were floating in the rivers of France that it became a health problem and drinking was prohibited.

Hundreds of prisoners were also lined up in fields and summarily shot by the National Guard; anti-revolutionaries – which sometimes numbered many hundreds – were mown down by fusillades and whole cities ransacked; children were clubbed, run through with sabres and shot en masse, a particular activity close to Carrier’s heart.

Perhaps no other city suffered as much as Nantes. It was almost entirely emptied of people who were then starved in its prisons, shot to death, guillotined and cut down in their homes on orders of Carrier and his minions. Special drains were installed in the Place de la Revolution in Paris to cope with the torrents of blood from the guillotine.


“True Believers” of the Reign of Terror: (left) Maximillien Marie Isidore de Robespierre (top right) Jean Paul Marat (bottom right) Jean-Baptiste Carrier

As various strains of anti-social pathologies take hold and subsequently elevated to positions of influence over ordinary men and women, large-scale psychological trauma and /or genocide on a macro-social scale is the inevitable result. Sophisticated ideals and morals are swiftly torn away and discarded like confetti, rapidly overtaken by the true purpose of a Revolution of this nature: political strategy thought up and carried out with psychopathic brutality. “The end justifies the means” is the mantra of the Elite Pathocrat where all is permitted for the cause of rending flesh from the the conscience of the normal psyche.

The parallels of pathology between the “Reign of Terror” and the “Red Terror” and even the evolution of the “War on Terror” appear to come from the same source. Just as Carrier enrolled companies of criminals or “mulattos”, the same dynamics were followed by Leninists troops as they were formed during the Communistic Terror in Hungary and by agent Trotsky who created terrorist troops as well as the Chinese gangs in Russia. Russian writer Alexsi Kuprin, questioned how it was possible that such a: “… bilious and dyspeptic chemist, anarchist, spy and plotter, whose speeches are full of such phrases as ‘roast on a slow fire’, ‘strangle’, ‘inundate with blood’, ‘cut off their heads’, should be seized by a blind fate and placed in the seat of power, instead of ending his days as a ‘sadist’ in a ward for violent lunatics?” [10]

In societies dominated by a rising tide of Pathocracy such people become valued political tools who find their natural place within the various tributaries of pathology, cloaking themselves in differing garbs of beliefs and ideals.

As writer George Rivers-Pitt states:

“Robespierre and Marat, like their ardent admirers, Lenin and AS at the present day, were animated by the same noble vision, not to relieve present distress and injustice by legislation, but only to annihilate all existing conditions, and “to exterminate all classes of the community except ‘the people’ over whom they hoped to rule supreme”. […] In their vision of the ‘New Birth of Society’, it is the blood of the Caesarean section they hope to practise on the expiring mother society, not the fate of the offspring which is their chief concern. […]Now that the terrorist period appears to have burned itself out to a very great extent in Russia, it is well that we should realise that it was an essential and deliberately designed phase of the Bolshevik plan, and that, as it was manifested with the same maniacal ferocity, wholesale butchery and bestiality, in Hungary, so would it be an inevitable prelude to any successful attempt to establish the same regime in any other European country. Mob licence and destruction would be encouraged and tolerated only as a means to preparing the way for the new dictators and for placing them in power.”  [11]

The vast upsurge of revolutionary ideas which led to the Great Terror needed anti-human individuals to facilitate a framework of control whereby such unbridled desires could be exercised against the populations without resistance and where sadism manifested across the whole psychopathic spectrum. This is essentially what systematic and organised atrocity means for those who perpetrate such deeds – a pleasure that matches sexual gratification. In the sacking and plunder of Toulouse in South-Western France, 19th century author of semi-fictional Cathar accounts Maurice Magre intuited such a contagion that stimulates and appeals to the lowest instincts in man and a natural state of psychopathy when the right conditions are in place:

“I had always believed that the affinity for theft and the desire for riches were at the roots of war. I realised that they were futile. The procession of women is the propelling force that pushes men to fight. The only thing the soldiers were talking about was the beautiful women they were going to take from the conquered cities … something akin to a sexual hallucination raged like a ghost in the back of everyone’s gaze.” [12]

The ceremonial psychopathy of Illuminism permitted such ponerological influences to emerge unhindered and driven towards a specific plan. The huge fire of anti-Catholic, anti-Christian feeling was lit and fanned by the members of the Illuminati in order to begin the eradication of religion itself. It was made more radical by the installment of the Revolutionary Calendar in the same year, perfectly in line with Illuminati designs. This resulted in a swift and systematic campaign drawn from a number of disparate groups which popped up from 1789 – 1801 until the signing of the Concordat which allowed some measure of civil status to return for Catholicism in France. It was a “Cult of Reason” that decimated not just Catholic institutions but any groups, Churches or organisations under the Christian faith; a veritable microcosm of Communist Russia. For example, a 1793 law made all non-juring priests and all persons who harboured them liable to death on sight. (Rather like those suspected of being Al-Qaeda can now be assassinated without any rights whatsoever).

Mémoires pour servir à l’histoire du Jacobinisme (Memoirs Illustrating the History of Jacobinism) a four volume book published by French Jesuit priest, Abbé Augustin Barruel, proved to be a vindication of Edmund Burke’s warnings. The book was published in French in 1797-78 and translated into English in 1799. Although considered as a founding document for a right-wing or conservative interpretation of the French Revolution, this only serves to undermine the central premise and narrow down the critique to a “left-right” discourse. There are facts at work here that transcend the superficial question of whether someone has a political axe to grind.


French polemicist Augustin Barruel (1741-1820)

Barruel outlined the Illuminist conspiracy to overthrow the monarchy, religion and aristocratic society in Europe, a plot that was “one continuous chain of cunning, art, and seduction” carried out by a conglomeration of philosophes, freemasons, and Illuminati members. Burke wrote to Barruel clearly impressed by the book, seeing it as a vindication of his own views: “I cannot easily express to you how much I am instructed and delighted by the first volume of your History of Jacobinism,” he wrote, mentioning: “… the most judicial regularity and exactness …” of his documents and source materials. Most interesting of all is Burkes admission that he knew: “… personally five of your principal conspirators; and I can undertake to say from my own certain knowledge, that as far back as the year 1773, they were busy in the plot you have so well described, and in the manner, and on the principle you have so truly represented. To this I can speak as a witness.” [13]

Burke was not a sensationalist but a pragmatic father of liberal conservatism. It is precisely because of his wisdom and perspicacity that he was able to see through the propaganda and manipulation of the “Philosophe sect” and lend his support to Barruel’s work in the face of a legion of detractors, most of whom were riding on the new paradigm of science, reason and its domination of Nature and mind.

Ten years later, in 1798, the Scottish scientist John Robison, published a treatise under the long winded title of: Proofs of a Conspiracy against All the Religions and Governments of Europe, carried on in the Secret Meetings of the Free Masons, Illuminati, and Reading Societies which confirmed much of the information in Barruel’s volumes. The author himself commented on in correspondence with Robison: “Without knowing it, we have fought for the same cause with the same arms, and pursued the same course.” [14] Though these men constructed their critiques on the same theses of belief this should not have overshadowed the facts. Anyone paying close attention would have to agree that history has proved these men quite correct.

Edmund Burke’s comments were extraordinarily accurate on the nature of Pathocracy once the doors had been opened. He had commented that the general disorder would make the army “mutinous and full of faction,” and then a “popular general,” commanding the soldiery’s allegiance, would become “master of your assembly, the master of your whole republic.” [15] After the execution of Robespierre, the Jacobins had outlived their usefulness as rent-a-mob for the sect and fell into rapid decline. By 1795, the Directory had control of the French state until 1799, which saw the rise of next the phase of theFrench Revolution this time under Napoleon, two years after Burke’s death.


Napoleon Bonaparte pictured crossing the Alps on horseback. Public domain image of the First Consul crossing the Alps at the Col du Grand St. Bernard in 1801 by artist Jacques-Louis David

The question as to whether Napoleon Bonaparte was a freemason has never been answered. In one sense, the disdain for organised religion, monarchy, aristocracy, the introduction of legal reform and the abolition of serfdom fits into the designs of Illuminism. The unimaginable changes that this one individual brought to Europe and eventually the world, in such a rapid time frame would probably have made many a French Illuminist and freemason proud. Whilst seeing it as an opportunity for his own political ambitions, he had been a supporter of the Revolution since it was obvious that corruption and elitism was eating France alive.  Extremely aware of the volatile and darker forces at work he had kept his down, avoided too much attention and bided his time.

Napoleon was highly intelligent with a philosopher’s mind entirely in keeping with the Age of Reason and Enlightenment principles. Indeed, it could be said that he personified the mentality, brute force, and the simultaneous bringer of New life, death and destruction that rationalism wrought on the collective mind. A gifted soldier and tactician first and foremost, he was unlike the Illuminists in respect to his code of honour which was as unimpeachable as his belief in the State. The use of terror tactics was an anathema to Napoleon and while his ruthlessness in war is undeniable, war crimes of rape, pillage and unnecessary death he studiously avoided, having men shot who flouted those principles. Despite certain historians with axes to grind portraying the man as a monster, he was no such thing. Certainly, he presided over hundreds of thousands of deaths on his quest for a New Napoleonic Order, but he was a soldier through and through – a warrior you might say.


Bas-relief of Napoleon I in the chamber of the United States House of Repres,Center>entatives (wikipedia)

He was perhaps too much his own man and as such, pride was his downfall. One thing that authoritarian leaders have is a large – if not gargantuan – ego. It is for this reason that it is unlikely that Napoleon was anybody’s secret strategist, since he believed the power which imbued his actions came from a Divine source, even though he had little time for religious theology which grated on his scientific mind. In one of Napoleon’s own writings his final couplet reads: “God helps those who helps himself. I approve of that idea myself.” This is a good summary of the practical, independent nature of his own spirituality. Ever open to arrange events and opportunities like pieces on a chess board for multiple future “check-mates” it is therefore, more likely that Napoleon  placated and used freemasonry and Illuminism for his own ends. Or as an American freemason suggested in a lodge newsletter: “The only matter of certainty is that he countenanced the institution [of freemasonry] and astutely made it subserve his own purposes”. [16]

Andrew Robert’s comprehensive and fascinating biography of Napoleon only mentions freemasonry once. At almost 900 pages, and with access to over 30,000 personal letters of Napoleon’s at the author’s disposal, one would have imagined he would have gleaned some minor indications of a freemasonic/Illuminist influence in his plans – but none were apparent. What Robert’s does show is that freemasons “tended to be supporters of his modernization programmes – especially in Italy.” He described but one meeting on December 2nd, 1797 with Napoleon as a guest of honour at a masonic lodge in Nancy as he was on his way to Paris. [17]

Weishaupt’s Order of the Illuminati, its infiltration of freemasonry and its fuelling of the Enlightenment was well-known in the New American Republic. Head of freemasonry in the fledging nation, President George Washington was more than satisfied that “the doctrines of the Illuminati and the principles of Jacobinism” had: “spread in the United States.” Nonetheless, he was rightly convinced that original freemasonry was not at fault, rather that it was the result of individuals insinuating themselves into the lodges with their: “diabolical tenets” and “pernicious principles” and were thus: “too evident to be questioned.” [18]


“Washington as a freemason. A full-length portrait of George Washington, standing, facing slightly right, in masonic attire, holding scroll and trowel.” (wikipedia)

Thomas Jefferson took an entirely different view. So much so, that that it was he who had acted as conduit for the Illuminati to enter the newly organized lodges of the “Scottish Rite” in New England. Jefferson defended Weishaupt saying:

“As Weishaupt lived under the tyranny of a despot and priests, he knew that caution was necessary even in spreading information, and the principles of pure morality. This has given an air of mystery to his views, was the foundation of his banishment … If Weishaupt had written here, where no secrecy is necessary in our endeavors to render men wise and virtuous, he would not have thought of any secret machinery for that purpose.” [19]

Indeed, it is now difficult to know when benign freemasonry begins and Illuminism ends when the very foundation of the US constitution and political system was steeped in masonic rites.

Author David Livingston describes George Washington’s Dedication of the United States Capitol in September 18, 1793:

“Dressed in Masonic apron, the president placed a silver plate on the cornerstone and covered it with the Masonic symbols of corn, oil and wine. The plan of the city of Washington DC itself was designed by Freemason and architect Pierre Charles L’Enfante in the form of a pentagram, or five-pointed star. In 1848, in a Masonic ceremony, the cornerstone was laid of the Washington Monument, an obelisk or pillar, like those formerly dedicated to the dying gods of ancient Middle East. And, every president of the United States since Independence has purportedly been a 33rd degree Freemason.” [20]

What were freemasons to do when the nature of the pathogen was so embedded within the whole fraternity and with secrecy and psychological espionage as its by-word? The seeds of the downfall of “benevolent” freemasonry were always present within its structure. With such an ancient fraternity, its networks in every conceivable corner of the developed world and centred in all the Establishment outposts of law and governance, it was the perfect platform from which to attack society from within, or as President of the University of Yale Timothy Dwight observed, thereby introducing: “the ultimate objects of their union, … the overthrow of religion, government, and human society civil and domestic.” [21]

Another American President, John Quincy Adams offered this logical appraisal of the Illuminati and how such a perversion of its already questionable principles was always waiting to happen:

“… the society of Masons have discovered a science of government, or art of ruling society, peculiar to themselves, and unknown to all the other legislators and philosophers of the world; I mean not only the skill to know each other by marks or signs that no other persons can divine but the wonderful power of enabling and compelling all men, and I suppose all women, at all hours, to keep a secret. If this art can be applied, to set aside the ordinary maxims of society, and introduce politics and disobedience to government, and still keep the secret, it must be obvious that such science and such societies may be perverted to all the ill purposes which have been suspected …” [22]

Though these great men knew of the threat they had no solutions for countering it. As George Washington said, “truth or falsehood is immaterial to them, provided their objects are promoted,” and it is the same Hegelian tactic which cultivates friends and enemies alike in order to divide and conquer and thereby rule, just as it was then and as it remains today. [23] With the death of Washington in 1799 another great mind to counter the rot was lost and the suspicion of Illuminist infiltration slowly disappeared from view as the decades rolled away.

Weishaupt died in 1830 just as the Grand wave of Zionism and Communism was about to come crashing down on an unsuspecting world still reeling from the “romance” of the Revolution. The march to a World Revolution was very much still in the minds of the Elect.

A constant reiteration throughout series is the psychopaths’ code for doing “what thou wilt” by any means to satisfy the natural will of the archetypal Predator. The French revolutionary, writer and diplomat Comte de Mirabeau best summed up the keynote of this primal philosophy which has been handed down through history: “What matter the means as long as one arrives at the end?” – the ends justify the means. It was a belief that lies in the kernel of Illuminism and their antecedents and which has been used to justify all manner of horrors under the banner of civilised progress.[24]

Disempowerment of ordinary human beings is the key principle of any oligarchy or elite mind-set. As we will explore in subsequent posts, the Rockefeller’s “green” and GMO-based “revolutions,” the farmers and the poor become trapped in a spiral of costs which have negative consequences for both communities and their environment. They have been induced to believe the proffered pots of gold of agribusiness, having believed the multi-million dollar sales and marketing pitches. Similarly, we can see that the Reign of Terror was not directed against the aristocrats, many of whom were of the same mind-set and quite sympathetic to revolutionary goals. Part of the true objectives of the Elite was to unseat and disenfranchise the power base of the peasantry: the small farmers who refused to turn over their grain to the revolutionary tribunals in exchange for assignats. The independent farmer is a great threat to the global governance and World State ideologues because his own produce means personal capital, which gives him independence. Independent farmers and their communities thus present an impediment for World Revolution. Control of food is also power.

At first, the Bolsheviks in Soviet Russia were convinced they had the beginnings of a World Revolution on their hands but were thwarted by the resistance of enclaves of independent farmers exploding the myth that such a form of control truly was for the worker or Proletariat. In fact, just as it was during the Reign of Terror, the Communist Party iconography of the tireless worker and devoted peasantry were systematically murdered and enslaved. The exact same patterns can be seen via latter-day corporatists and descendants of the “Age of Reason” who seek to crush the small farmers from India to America in order to wrest the reins of food management, distribution and production towards fully automated, genetically-modified, lab-based food. Consequently, a handful of conglomerates straddle agribusiness and biotech industries. This is what the Rockefeller controlled agricultural programs throughout Mexico and Latin America are really about.

All societal domains have been tainted with a familiar ideology which harks back to the tenets of Illuminist thinking, and the global occult body behind it. Signs of this anti-human perception of reality can be found in the Liberal Establishment’s  United Nations, government agencies, environmental activists and transhumanist thought, while American WASP and Euro-Synarchists’s cartel-capitalism and its debt-slavery is spread over the world care of the Structural Adjustment Team.

These two primary streams are converging to form another technological revolution in the guise of an emerging SMART society. For the Illuminists’ Age of Reason and Enlightenment visions, could they have imagined a better mnemonic acronym for their extraordinary success?


* I have to confess a personal interest in Edmund Burke since he is an ancestor of mine. He was an example of that thoroughly rare animal: the politician with scruples, integrity and conscience; an advocate of “human-heart” based conservatism who remained a believer of the State yes, but striving to retain a genuine benevolence in a period of immense social turmoil. Winston Churchill wrote this about him:

“On the one hand Burke is revealed as a foremost apostle of Liberty, on the other as the redoubtable champion of Authority. But a charge of political inconsistency applied to this life appears a mean and petty thing. History easily discerns the reasons and forces which actuated him, and the immense changes in the problems he was facing which evoked from the same profound mind and sincere spirit these entirely contrary manifestations. His soul revolted against tyranny, whether it appeared in the aspect of a domineering Monarch and a corrupt Court and Parliamentary system, or whether, mouthing the watch-words of a non-existent liberty, it towered up against him in the dictation of a brutal mob and wicked sect. No one can read the Burke of Liberty and the Burke of Authority without feeling that here was the same man pursuing the same ends, seeking the same ideals of society and Government, and defending them from assaults, now from one extreme, now from the other.”



[1] Reflections on the Revolution in France by Edmund Burke online PDF version:
[2] Ibid. (p.8)
[3] ‘Terror in the French Revolution’ by Marisa Linton, Kingston University |…/filetodownload,20545,en.pdf
[4] Ibid.
[5] Ibid.
[6] Ibid.
[7] Extract from a law introduced by the Committee for Public Safety, 17th September 1793.
[8] Execution Records,
[9] ‘Two Revolutions’ By Steve Bonta, The New American, October 12, 1998.
[10] The World Significance of the Russian Revolution by George Pitt-Rivers, Sacred Truth Publishing, With Perface by Oscar Levy, 1920, New Edition 2006.
[11] Ibid.
[12] The Blood of Toulouse by Maurice Magre, translated from French by James Bourne.
[13] Edmund Burke to Abbé Barruel, May 1, 1797, in Thomas W. Copeland, ed., The Correspondence of Edmund Burke, 10 Vols. (Chicago and Cambridge, 1958–1978), 9: 319–320.
[14] p.114; Enemies of the Enlightenment and the Making of Modernity by Darrin M. McMahon, New York: Oxford University Press, 2001 | ISBN 978-0-19-513685-2
[15] op.cit Burke; Reflections.
[16] Ars Quatuor Coronatorum vol. viii (1895). ed. G. W. Speth. Margate: Lodge Quatuor Coronati, No. 2078, London. pp. 188-89.
[17] Roberts, Andrew, Napoleon the Great (2014) (Kindle edition ref: location 3181) published by Allen Lane.
[18] George Washington, shortly before he died, read John Robison’s book Proofs of a Conspiracy and immediately expressed his belief to the preacher who had sent it to him, that the designs of the Illuminati were infecting our country. Letter to Reverend G. W. Snyder, Writings of George Washington, (p 518-519).
[19] p. 134; Livingston, David,Terrorism & the Illuminati: A Three-Thousand-Year History Published by Progressive Press, 2011 | ISBN-10: 1615773061
[20] Ibid.
[21] Yale Professor and President of the University of Yale Timothy Dwight The American Mind: selections from the literature of the United States, p. 220. 1798.
[22] op. cit. Reed (p.138)
[23] The Writings of George Washington, vol. 33. August 26, 1794.
[24] Honre-Gabriel Riquetti, Comte de Mirabeau, ‘The Great Terror’ Paris, 1789.

World Revolution II: The Hive

“The human race will then become one family, and the world will be the dwelling of Rational Men.
– Adam Weishaupt

Continuing our look into the roots of the conspiracy coat-hanger of occult naughtiness: the Illuminati.

bee_on_honeycomb-1969pxIn the Weishaupt papers was a diagram which gives a fascinating insight into the megalomania of the professor and the structure of the Order, where emphasis is placed on the bee hive’s honeycomb system of organisation and it’s potential for secrecy and subterfuge, the same system upon which Communism and subsequent intelligence cells would operate. The fascination with bee symbolism was in evidence not only in freemasonry but in Royalty and in many ancient mystery cults. Once symbolising the ethics of cooperation, industriousness and mutual assistance the bee hive became the perfect representation of the Illuminati methods of concealment, the efficacy of the Hive Mind and group consciousness, this time working with materialist, scientific precision.

What is made clear in the papers is the perfection of such a template for espionage. If one hexagonal unit is discovered it can be temporarily lost or easily repaired without affecting the operations of the whole. At the centre of the diagram lies Weishaupt and written above in his own hand: “I have two immediately below me into whom I breathe my whole spirit, and each of these two has again two others, and so on. In this way I can set a thousand men in motion and on fire in the simplest manner, and in this way one must impart orders and operate on politics”. [1]

In 1777 Bavaria and Greater Germany had been host to a spread of Illuminism like fire in a corn-field. By then, France, Italy, Austria, Poland England and even America had succumbed to their influence:

In the third year of operation Weishaupt boasts to Zwack that they have more than a thousand initiates. … Knigge recruits an additional 500 … – mostly masons – very shortly after his initiation in 1780; and by the third edict against the Order the Illuminati were estimated to have between 2000 and 3000 members. [VS] John Robison compiles an interesting statistic concerning the different lodges and locations: Munich, Hesse (many), Ingolstadt, Buchenwerter, Frankfurt, Monpeliard, Eichstatt, Stuttgart (3), Hanover, Carlsruhe, Brunswick, Anspach, Calbe, Neuwied (2), Magdeburg, Mentz (2), Cassel, Poland (many), Osnabrueck, Turin, Weimar, England (8), Upper Saxony (several), Scotland (2), Austria (14), Warsaw (2), Westphalia (several), Deuxponts, Heidelberg, Cousel, Mannheim, Treves (2), Strasburg (5), Aix-la-Chappelle (2), Spire, Bartschied, Worms, Bahrenberg, Düsseldorf, Switzerland (many), Rome, Cologne, Naples, Hannibal, Bonn (4), Livonia (many), Ancona, Courland (many), Florence, Franken Dahl, France, Alsace (many), Holland (many), Vienna (4), Dresden (4), America (several). [4]

The extent of Weishaupt and the Illuminati’s reach can be seen in the governing principles and a detailed administrative plan comprising of Regents, Local Superiors, Provincials and National Directors. It was Weishaupt’s will that a National Director should reside in every country so that they may be: “… in direct communication with our Fathers, the first of whom holds the helm of the Order.” [5] (See below).

The documents show only a part of the area over which the Illuminati had spread, it is therefore reasonable to assume that Weishaupt was answerable to a director above him, another segment in the larger hive. Though judging by the ad hoc nature of Weishaupt’s feverish attempt to create the higher degrees, it seems the organisation may have taken on a momentum regardless. As we have seen, construction of the Order allowed for accidental detection which would damage only the segment in question without affecting the security of the whole. Thus, if there were higher directorates above Weishaupt which seems likely, then they were never discovered.


Professor Adam Weishaupt

I. The Nursery

  • 1. Preparatory Literary Essay
  • 2. Novitiate (Novice)
  • 3. Minerval (Brethren of Minerva, Academy of Illuminism)
  • 4. Illuminatus Minor

II. Symbolic Freemasonry

  • 1. Apprentice
  • 2. Fellow Craft
  • 3. Master
  • 4.  a. Scots Major Illuminatus | b. Scots Illuminatus Dirigens (Directory)

III. Mysteries

  • 1. Lesser
  • a. Presbyter, Priest, or Epopt  |  b. Prince or Regent
  • 2. Greater
  • a. Magus | b. Rex or King [6]

The aims, methods and organisation of the Order were all explained in the papers. It seems he preferred the label of “Illuminati” for his new network because of the “image of the sun radiating illumination to outer circles.” This was due to his desire for the Order to be updated into a cult of fire worship and: “… the whole philosophy of Zoroaster or of the old Parsees.” [7] Henceforth, the Order was always represented in correspondence between members as a circle with a dot in the centre, reflecting Weishaupt’s fascination with Eleusinian and Pythagorean Mysteries. [8]

What was clear from the correspondence between “Spartacus” and his brethren was that the established authority, nationhood and religion, must all be removed by all and any means necessary in order to make the way clear for a neo-feudal class of Elite citizens or “illuminates” who would then guide the world into a New Order or Golden era. Weishaupt states: “Princes and nations will disappear … Reason will be the only code of man”.

The elimination of nationhood and the Church was of primary importance to the Illuminati just as it is to so many globalist think-tanks and (not so) secret societies today. The channel by which Weishaupt was able to garner so much support was through his Machiavellian tactic of good intentions and the appearance of “progressive” ideas, a manoeuvre used to great effect today through the auspices of seemingly benign groups and individuals on the liberal-left who often act as a back-door of more oppressive policies. [9] Indeed, examples of Conservative and Neo-Conservative beliefs in numerous lobbying and think-tank outfits are obvious in their bullish, Leninist force, such as PNAC, National Endowment for Democracy, American Enterprise Institute etc.  But the more internationalist or liberal-left luminaries such as Amy Goodman, Juan Cole, Noam Chomsky or the late Howard Zinn act as effective gate-keepers of these beliefs – probably unconscious – which can often provide cover for strategies which have nothing to do with the betterment of humankind, socialist or otherwise. Just look at the ingredients put together to produce the Obamamania marketing …

(An example of this is an irrational dismissal of unanswered questions surrounding the events of September 11th World Trade Centre and Pentagon attacks. Zinn and Chomsky both refused to engage on one of the most obvious and ambitious false flag operations of modern times, preferring to believe in the official conspiracy theory that any high school student could see is woefully inadequate).

Methods of subversion were visited upon the Church in trail-blazing fashion. Weishaupt ensured the employment of methods to swell the numbers of clergy entering the lower ranks of the Illuminati, thus giving the impression of support for the Church. One of these methods was to make up the idea of “a secret doctrine” which Jesus had incorporated in the Gospels and which could be discerned by those who had sufficient perception. The idea was that the New Religion of science and reason would sit side by side with a New World Religion based around Nature and summarily replace Christianity: “… when at last Reason becomes the religion of man so will the problem be solved”. Francis Bacon couldn’t have said it better. In private the Illuminists were having a grand old time.

Before his falling out with Weishaupt, Baron von Knigge as “Philo” wrote:


Adolph Franz Friedrich Ludwid Baron Von Knigge (1752 – 1796) Member of the Illuminati (wikipedia)

“We say then, Jesus wished to introduce no new religion, but only to restore natural religion and reason to their old rights … There are many passages in the Bible which can be made use of and explained, and so all quarrelling between the sects ceases if one can find a reasonable meaning in the teaching of Jesus, be it true or not … Now therefore that people see that we are the only real and true Christians, we can say a word more against priests and princes, but I have so managed that after previous tests I can receive pontiffs and kings in this degree. In the higher Mysteries we must then (a) disclose the pious fraud and (b) reveal from all writings the origin of all religious lies and their connexion…”

Spartacus: “You cannot imagine what sensation our Priest’s degree is arousing. The most wonderful thing is that great Protestant and reformed theologians who belong to Illuminism still believe that the religious teaching imparted in it contains the true and genuine spirit of the Christian religion. Oh, man, of what cannot you be persuaded! I never thought that I should become the founder of a new religion”. [10]

The God of Reason and the God of Nature was not only ideologically close to the precepts of radical materialism (Satanism) combined with a fusion of Judaic ideology over Marxist planning. The dismantling of organised, Christian religion was an essential part of that process just as it would be under Stalinism. Weishaupt was Jewish and these teachings were the illuminist creed. Does that mean the much loathed cliche of a Jewish conspiracy is true? There is no evidence that a high proportion of the Illuminati were Jewish or that the overriding goal was the imposition of a strictly Judaic form of occult subversion. What it does show that once again psychopaths and their sub-deviants used Judaism and some Jews as a very early as a tool for manipulation, as discussed. The Babylonian Kabbalah is an integral part of Jewish mysticism and freemasonic lore, so, it is not surprising that alternative offshoots like Illuminism had at their helm a Jew, since in the beginning standard freemasonry did not allow Jews into the order, except that is in the 19th Century with the emergence of the Order Of Zion.

To reiterate, the Bavarian Illuminati were like a masonic-terrorist group which disdained both religious and esoteric explorations. In Weishaupt’s Illuminism – perhaps oddly for some – there was no room at all for other forms of occultism, spiritualism, alchemy and any forms of “magic” suspicious as he was of Jesuit infiltration. Yet a mix of ancient Egyptian gods and goddesses Eleusis, fire worship, Zoroastrianism and Pythagorean thought he certainly favoured.

Progressing through the ranks of the Illuminati was akin to a process of mind control and brainwashing. Attaining wisdom or understanding didn’t feature, rather it was to be “remade into a totally loyal servant of a universal mission” and dare we say …”agent of change” on along revolutionary lines.[11] It was inferred that the novice would be under constant surveillance from his unknown superiors and was taught to inform on everyone around him, the logical conclusion being that his fellow Illuminists would be informing on him too. In this way trust was eroded in all things except the hierarchy of the Order. Terror was the teaching and application. In the end, he could trust no one. (Little wonder that such a template was introduced into the Russian Revolution to produce Stalinist Communism).

Everything possible was known about new recruits in order that they be “remade” and fixed to the path allotted to them without deviation. Blackmail, psychological warfare and exploitation featured heavily in Illuminist goals. Discovered with the papers were separate but related documents describing a variety of procedures, postulates, ideas and inventions, reading like a spy vs. spy rule-book. For the public of the day it was nothing less than macabre. This included the right to murder its own members if necessary; the description of a machine for the automatic destruction of secret papers; prescriptions for inducing abortion, the creation of poisonous perfumes, counterfeit seals and tracts in praise of atheism.[12]

The target to infiltrate and take over the Grand Orient Freemasonry was described in the Weishaupt papers in sufficient detail. He wrote: “I have succeeded in obtaining a profound glimpse into the secrets of the Freemasons; I know their whole aim and shall impart it all at the right time in one of the higher degrees”. With an almost gleeful rubbing of the hands Weishaupt instructs his Illuminist agents to “cover” themselves with Freemasonic principles the forerunner to being “undercover” as used in later communist espionage and counter-espionage activities. It remained the key principle of the Illuminati appropriation of freemasonry.

The director continued:

“If only the aim is achieved, it does not matter under what cover it takes place; and a cover is always necessary. For in concealment lies a great part of our strength. For this reason we must always cover ourselves with the name of another society. The lodges that are under Freemasonry are in the meantime the most suitable cloak for our high purpose . . . a society concealed in this manner cannot be worked against. . . In case of a prosecution or of treason the superiors cannot be discovered. . . We shall be shrouded in impenetrable darkness from spies and emissaries of other societies”. [13]

Prince Karl of the Royal House of Hesse and his membership of the Illuminati provided vital channels through which the Illuminati could flow, including the twin duchies and Office of Regent of Schleswig-Holstein and further links to the Danish court via his wife the Princess of Denmark, Mary Hanover and the King of Denmark and Frederik V Oldenburg. His associates were found in the British East India Co. and also included Mayer Amschel Rothschild and his son Nathan Mayer Rothschild. The House of Hesse would go from strength to strength harbouring Illuminati principles well into the future.

An even greater coup came from Ferdinand, Duke of Brunswick, and freemasonry’s Grand Master of the Order of Strict Observance, who had joined the Illuminati after he had convened the most important Congress of the 18th Century. He was to realise his mistake over ten years later in that he had unwittingly unleashed a pathogen within the ranks of freemasonry. In 1794 he expressed his shock and sadness at being duped by instigators of the French Revolution and the need to “cut out to the roots the abuse and error” which he had allowed to infect the Order. A momentous decision to dissolve the most powerful body within Freemasonry would commence:


Duke Ferdinand of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel

“…. We see our edifice crumbling and covering the ground with ruins; we see destruction that our hands no longer arrest… A great sect arose, which taking for its motto the good and the happiness of man, worked in the darkness of the conspiracy to make the happiness of humanity a prey for itself. This sect is known to everyone; its brothers are known no less than its name. It is they who have undermined the foundations of the Order to the point of complete overthrow; it is by them that all humanity has been poisoned and led astray for several generations … They began by casting odium on religion … the plan they had formed for breaking all social ties and destroying all order was revealed in all their speeches and acts … they recruited apprentices of every rank and in every position; they deluded the most perspicacious men by falsely alleging different intentions … Their masters had nothing less in view than the thrones of the earth, and the government of the nations was to be directed by their nocturnal clubs. This is what has been done and is still being done. But we notice that princes and people are unaware how and by what means this is being accomplished. That is why we say to them in all frankness: the misuse of our Order … has produced all the political and moral troubles with which the world is filled today. You who have been initiated, you must join yourselves with us in raising your voices, so as to teach peoples and princes that the sectarians, the apostates of our Order, have alone been and will be the authors of present and future revolutions … So as to cut out to the roots the abuse and error, we must from this moment dissolve the whole Order…” [14]

Meantime, the events which led up to this point had seen the creation of Jacobin clubs by Illuminist agents who were the driving force of cruel executions and various atrocities which came to be known by the generic title of the “Great Terror”. There seems little doubt that the Illuminati was at the root of the French Revolution and the destruction that followed. This was known well before the fire of “revolution” raged out of control.

In 1789 the journalist and essayist Marquis Jean-Pierre de Luchet published his Essai sur la secte des Illuminés, denouncing the leaders of the Bavarian Illuminati, their control of freemasonry in Europe and in particular his native home of France. His predictions were perhaps one of the most accurate appraisals of the events that were to follow:

“Learn that there exists a conspiracy in favour of despotism against liberty, of in capacity against talent; of vice against virtue, of ignorance against enlightenment … This society aims at governing the world … Its object is universal domination … No such calamity has ever yet afflicted the world …” […] “Deluded people. You must understand that there exists a conspiracy in favor of despotism, and against liberty, of incapacity against talent, of vice against virtue, or ignorance against light! … Every species of error which afflicts the earth, every half-baked idea, every invention serves to fit the doctrines of the Illuminati … The aim is universal domination.”  [15]

The actions of Comte de Mirabeau, a close associate and confidante of Weishaupt,  provided compelling evidence that the French Revolution was planned and initiated by Illuminati mind control and Jacobean muscle. This was no natural uprising of a disgruntled peasantry and exploited workers – that was largely a romantic myth. Mirabeau’s philosophy of secular upheaval and universal revolution were enlisted for the Illuminist cause and proved to be extremely effective.

As an “outstanding orator” in the National Assembly who used “evocative language” to popularise Illuminist concepts, he was able to swell membership and indoctrinate many high level power-brokers in Paris. He was a member of the Jacobin Club and had a directorial hand in the encouragement of the horrors themselves. It was no coincidence that the incendiary language he used included the invention of phrases which passed into bloody history such as “revolutionary,” “counter-revolution”,  “counter-revolutionary and “The Great Revolution.” [16]


Honoré Gabriel Riqueti, comte de Mirabeau

Mirabeau used the Illuminati’s embryonic techniques of propaganda and emotional trigger words, the equivalent of what is now known as psychological training in perception management, Neuro-Linguistic Programming (NLP) and other forms of mind manipulation now used so extensively by the Establishment. Essentially, Mirabeau was a powerful spellbinder. You might say that he was an earlier incarnation of that much loathed figure and ultra-hypocrite Tony Blair whose oratory and persuasive appeals to the emotions managed to sway the more gullible members of parliament and public alike, regardless of the facts.

As is often the case with such people, the Count had been plagued by financial irregularities and spells in prison and had even worked as a secret agent long before he met Weishaupt. [17] His travels in Germany and fascination for the Prussian monarchy as well his own, culminated in his treatise: De la monarchie prussienne sous Frédéric le Grand (1788)  written with assistance of a Brunswick friend, Jakob Mauvillon.

In it Weishaupt and the Illuminati are mentioned by name:

“The Lodge Theodore de Bon Conseil at Munich, where there were a few men with brains and hearts, was tired of being tossed about by the vain promises and quarrels of Masonry. The heads resolved to graft on to their branch another secret association to which they gave the name of the Order of the Illuminés. They modelled it on the Society of Jesus, whilst proposing to themselves views diametrically opposed.” [18]

Drawing our attention to the fact that the above methods penned by Mirabeau matched perfectly with Weishaupt’s own correspondence, author and journalist Douglas Reed details a convergence of proof which suggests that had both been working together to unseat freemasonry and inaugurate a New Revolutionary Order, at least at the time of his writing in 1776, well over a decade before the revolution.

Reed explains:

“… his words suggest that the secret society of the Illuminati was founded with the express intention of gaining control of Freemasonry and of instigating and directing revolution through it. That Mirabeau was party to the whole undertaking from the start is suggested by the fact that the memoir of 1776 (the year in which the Illuminati were founded) ascribes to him the Illuminist “cover-name” of Arcesilas, so that he must have been a founder member, with Adam Weishaupt, and a leading Illuminate thereafter. Mirabeau, as the link between Weishaupt and the French Revolution, cannot be ignored. The editor of his Memoirs, M. Barthou, remarks that the “plan of reform” of 1776, found among Mirabeau’s papers, “resembles very much in certain parts the work accomplished later by the Constituent Assembly” (the revolutionary parliament of 1789). That is another way of saying that the work of the Constituent Assembly very much resembled Adam Weishaupt’s plan of 1776, when he and Mirabeau together were founding the Illuminati and planning together to gain control of Freemasonry.” [19]

It is highly probable that Weishaupt merely picked up the baton of occult belief circulating at the time and reinvented it according to his own pathologically narcissistic designs. As to whether he had “orders” from a group of Rosicrucian superiors remains probable, the House of Rothschild offered up as probable suspects by many authors. [20]Once freemasonry was co-opted with their enormous influence within the Establishment then it was only a matter of time before culture itself helped to sweep away the footprints of the Illuminati.

Though formed as a reaction against the Age of Enlightenment and the onset of the Industrial Revolution, the Romantic Movement was greatly influenced by the French Revolution. Poets such as Shelly, Byron, Coleridge and Wordsworth all latched onto the ideals of “Liberty, Equality, and Fraternity” while choosing to ignore the Reign of Terror that followed in its wake. Come what may, this was to be an icon of a new dawn for those exploited workers who had suffered for so long. In the words of 19th Century historian Albert E. Hancock: “… the promise of a brighter day, the promise of regenerated man and regenerated earth. It was hailed with joy and acclamation by the oppressed, by the ardent lovers of humanity, by the poets, whose task it is to voice the human spirit.” [21]

This yearning to be free from the shackles of the psychopaths was a natural enough expression but it served to whitewash over the truth once again.



[1] Adam Weishaupt: A Human Devil by Gerald B. Winrod, Editor of The Defender Wichita, Kansas, 1935, Second Prim in j. Fourth Thousand.
[2] op. cit. Melanson. [Zoroastrianism: founded by the Prophet Zoroaster in ancient Iran approximately 3500 years ago and is seen as the first monotheistic religion. “Zoroaster was thus the first to teach the doctrines of an individual judgment, Heaven and Hell, the future resurrection of the body, the general Last Judgment, and life everlasting for the reunited soul and body. These doctrines were to become familiar articles of faith to much of mankind, through borrowings by Judaism, Christianity and Islam; yet it is in Zoroastrianism itself that they have their fullest logical coherence….” Mary Boyce, Zoroastrians: Their Religious Beliefs and Practices (London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1979 p.29]
[3] pp.94-95; Fire In the Minds of Men: Origins of the Revolutionary Faith, by James H. Billington, 1980 | ‘Illuminati Conspiracy Part One: Exegesis on the Available Evidence’ by Terry Melanson, Aug. 5th, 2005.
[4] Ibid.
[5] op. cit. Barruel (p.565)
[6] ‘Illuminati Conspiracy Part One: A Precise Exegesis on the Available Evidence’ by Terry Melanson, Aug. 5th, 2005.
[7] Ibid.
[8] Ibid.
[9 op. cit. Webster (p.217)
[10] op. cit. Webster (p.219)
[11] Op. cit. Billington; (p.94)
[13] Op. cit. Webster (p.219)
[14] op. cit. Reed (p.138)
[15] Essai sur la secte des Illuminés, Paris, 1789. By Jean Pierre Louis de, Marquis de Luchet.
[16] op. cit. Billington (pp.17-20)
[17] ‘Honoré-Gabriel Riqueti, comte de Mirabeau’ Encyclopaedia Britannica.
[18] De la monarchie prussienne sous Frédéric le Grand (1788) “The Prussian Monarchy Under Frederick the Great” by Honoré-Gabriel Riqueti, comte de Mirabeau.
[19] Op. cit. Reed (p.148)
[20] Some believe that Weishaupt was commissioned by the Rothschilds to update the mystery schools and inject new energy into the ancient goals of global conquest. No concrete evidence has as yet, been forthcoming. See: Terrorism and the Illuminati By David Livingston; Bloodlines of the Illuminati by Fritz Springmeier; The Rothschilds: The Financial Rulers of Nations by John Reeves; Illuminati: Fact or Fiction by Mark Dice and The Rise of the House of Rothschild By Egon Caesar Corti.
[21] p.7, 45-79; The French Revolution and the English Poets: A Study in Historical Criticism. New York: Henry Holt and Company, 1899.