By M.K. Styllinski
“The republic’s in trouble, we lie about everything, lying has become the staple.”
– Seymour Hersh, Pulitzer prize-winning journalist
Perhaps the most important aspect for a healthy society is an equally healthy press. It is considered to be a defining feature of Western democracy. This would be true if such an ideal had ever been attained. As media commentator and MIT professor of Linguistics Noam Chomsky observed: “What is being reported blandly on the front pages would elicit ridicule and horror in a society with a genuinely free and democratic intellectual culture.” 
Media is a profitable business where truth has unfortunately been buried under an avalanche of corporate and political dictates the seeds of which were sown very early on its development. The nature of the “free market” and the forces that drive it are more than enough to make sure that the media and independent journalism would quickly dissolve into something quite different: to line the pockets of big business and to help the ruling class to justify its position in society, rather than help uncover the truth in any given situation. Truth is only relevant if it doesn’t threaten the money machine and social status.
Ever since Freud’s nephew, Edward Bernays created the modern field of propaganda and the manipulation of public perception, older European governments and U.S. administrations have been routinely using his techniques. The greatest tool for perception management is through the organ of the global media, most especially in the US and UK. It is not that there is a conspiracy to create specific news stories, although that does happen, but that the very beliefs which underpin the reporting of news conforms to a form of self-censorship by the sin of omission. This, in conjunction with propaganda is highly effective. The now crumbling Murdoch Empire was a case in point. It is hardly likely that Murdoch and his editors would allow impartial reporting of issues that went counter to Murdoch’s own pro-Zionist and conservative beliefs, mostly notably seen via his Fox News network. And if there were such stories, then a suitable “spin” was sure to be provided ensuring a dilution or a twist on the original. 
In the long tradition of CIA and MI6 meddling, infiltration of Western media began in the 1940s with Operation Mocking Bird, the aim of which was total control of the American MSM. As the name cynically suggests, the idea was to embed journalists in every media outlet in the US who would then mimic journalism while in reality, they would follow and promote the government line. As is usually the case in any effective intelligence operation there are well-intentioned dupes working alongside those that would sell their own grandmother for step up the career ladder. Since then, disinformation and propaganda has characterised much of the global media, with the US-UK-Israel triangle cheer-leading all the way.
From the 1950s onwards the CIA ran a training school for Intelligence officers who were: ‘taught to make noises like reporters,’ … and then placed in major news organizations with help from top management. A CIA official said that: “These were the guys who went through the ranks and were told ‘You’re going to be a journalist,’” Relatively few of the 400 ‑ some relationships described in Agency files followed that pattern, however; most involved persons were already bona fide journalists when they began undertaking tasks for the Agency.” 
These journalists brought into the fold consisted of: legitimate, accredited staff members of news organizations—usually reporters; freelancers; employees of so‑called CIA ‘proprietaries;’ editors, publishers and broadcast network executives; columnists and commentators. News outlets traditionally associated with the CIA in the 1950s, 60s and 70s (and may still be) was The New York Times, Colombia Broadcasting company (CBS), Time and Newsweek magazines, The American Broadcasting Company (ABC) and the National Broadcasting Company (NBC). Other newspapers included: The New York Herald‑Tribune, The Saturday‑Evening Post, Scripps‑Howard Newspapers, Associated Press, United Press International, the Mutual Broadcasting System, Reuters and the Miami Herald. 
Former Washington Post reporter Carl Bernstein quoted a former CIA deputy director referring to the Post’s publisher Phil Graham as: “…widely known that [he] was someone you could get help from”. Graham and his CIA colleagues discussed the availability and prices of journalists and according to one CIA agent: “You could get a journalist cheaper than a good call girl, for a couple hundred dollars a month.”  As we will see in future posts, “information dominance” requires a level of Psychological Operations that not only co-opts the established media outlets but actively manipulates these assets to plant progressive disinformation which becomes accepted belief.
Thanks in part to a revealing 1974 expose The CIA and the Cult of Intelligence written by two ex-CIA agents, John D. Marks and Victor Marchetti, the agency had to cope with a series of investigations led by Senator Frank Church otherwise known as the Church Committee with assistance from the United States Senate Select Committee. It was to place the the existence of Operation Mocking Bird under intense scrutiny. According to the Congress report published in 1976: “The CIA currently maintains a network of several hundred foreign individuals around the world who provide intelligence for the CIA and at times attempt to influence opinion through the use of covert propaganda. These individuals provide the CIA with direct access to a large number of newspapers and periodicals, scores of press services and news agencies, radio and television stations, commercial book publishers, and other foreign media outlets.” However, by the time George Bush became director of the CIA in 1976 the Church Committee’s report was effectively buried with the following statement made in February of that year designed to take the heat away from a program that undoubtedly remained in place: “Effective immediately, the CIA will not enter into any paid or contract relationship with any full-time or part-time news correspondent accredited by any U.S. news service, newspaper, periodical, radio or television network or station.” As a footnote to this very public declaration Bush added that the CIA would continue to “welcome” the voluntary, unpaid cooperation of journalists. 
And if anyone believes a public statement given by the CIA has a shred of credibility at all then they need to do some research on intelligence agencies. Black is almost always white unless it benefits their objectives to say otherwise. The control and filtering of information is paramount.
One expert on propaganda and disinformation techniques is William Schaap, a practising lawyer and member of the bar of the State of New York and District of Columbia. He practiced military law in Asia and Europe after which he became the editor in chief of the Military Law Reporter in Washington for a number of years. In the 70’s and 80’s he was a staff counsel of the Centre for Constitutional Rights in New York City. In the late 1980’s was an adjunct professor at John J. College of Criminal Justice of the City University of New York where he taught courses on propaganda and disinformation. In his spare time he is an author and publisher on intelligence and foreign policy issues as well as squeezing in his managerial directorship of the Institute of Media analysis. In other words, this man is well qualified to speak about matters which have traditionally remained hidden from the public.
In an interview given on November 30 1999, Schaap gave his testimony on government propaganda and disinformation with special focus on the FBI and CIA. He talked of CIA’s presence in Angola in the mid-1970s during the war between the South Africans. The CIA’s job was to discredit the Cubans who were helping the Angolans. In order to do this, stories were concocted about Cuban soldiers raping Angolan women and Angolan militia tracking down Cuban soldiers and arresting them whereupon they were tried by the women victims and executed with their own weapons. Around twelve newspaper stories were circulated in the US, Europe and most of the prominent media outlets of the day.
When keywords and images are repeated with a fabricated story over and over again this can become truth in the individual’s mind. As in the above example: Angolan women = Rape = Cuban Soldiers. Propaganda result: Cuban soldiers are bad along with Cuban foreign policy. Despite the revelations by CIA officer John Stockwell proving that the atrocities were a pack of lies, people continued to believe that the atrocities occurred because the patterns of belief laid down in the brain over many years could not be shifted simply by exposing the truth. This is why the media serves as an incredible tool for the Establishment classes for maintaining their power base my manipulating belief systems or creating new ones. It also explains what an uphill struggle it is to reveal truth to a population that has been fed a diet of high-octane lies for many decades. Nor has the fabrication of stories ended. It has in fact increased in intensity under the War on Terror hoax and the Anglo-American invasions in Iraq, Libya, Yemen, Somalia and most recently in Syria.
Schaap was asked how extensive is the disinformation framework and his response was based on the reports from the 1970s in which: “… a third of the CIA budget went to media propaganda operations … we are talking about 100’s of millions of dollars a year, just for that…on deliberately creating and spreading lies.” 
Nick Davies is another journalist who has exposed the deep levels of propaganda. In his book: Flat Earth News: an award-winning reporter exposes falsehood, distortion and propaganda in the global media (2008) Davies’ research has led him to conclude: “For the first time in human history, there is a concerted strategy to manipulate global perception. And the mass media are operating as its compliant assistants, failing both to resist it and to expose it.”  He discovered that intelligence agencies are working with less and less oversight supported by a structure of “strategic communications … originally designed by doves in the Pentagon and NATO who wanted to use subtle and non-violent tactics to deal with Islamist terrorism but whose efforts are poorly regulated and badly supervised with the result that some of its practitioners are breaking loose and engaging in the black arts of propaganda.” 
While freelance political agitators offer their services and provide made up stories to intelligence agencies most of the most notorious fiction floating around the newswires comes the Pentagon, care of its “information operations.” Since October 2006, Davies writes:
“… every brigade, division and corps in the US military has had its own ‘PYSOPS’ [Psychological Operations] element producing output for local media. This military activity is linked to the State Department’s campaign of ‘public diplomacy’ which includes funding radio stations and news websites. In Britain, the Directorate of Targeting and Information Operations in the Ministry of Defence works with specialists from 15 UK PSYOPS * based at the Defence Intelligence and Security School at Chicksands in Bedfordshire.” 
The Bush administration perhaps represented the most blatant use of PSYOPS. Many journalists have been found to have accepted cash payments for the spreading of disinformation or the spreading of government policy. One example was Armstrong Williams, a commentator and talk-show host who received $240,000 to promote its education initiatives. The Bush Administration’s Office of Cuba Broadcasting also paid 10 journalists to provide anti-Castro commentary on Radio and TV Martí, which transmit to Cuba government broadcasts critical of Fidel Castro. 
The final nail in the coffin of a free and independent press arrived after the Reaganomics era of deregulation which allowed banking elites and the rise of corporatism to buy every facet of commercial life and ultimately the very machinery of governments themselves. (The Obama administration is similarly full of ex-corporate CEOs and Goldman Sacs executives) It was inevitable that media would become a casualty of the lowest common denominator of cartel capitalism so that maximum amounts of money kept flowing into the coffers. This has resulted in a rapid consolidation of companies which exert a powerful monopoly on what the public is allowed to digest as “news.”
These corporations are:
- GE / Comcast – Jeffrey R. Immelt / Brian Roberts: NBC Universal, E! Entertainment Television, Style Network, G4, The Golf Channel and NBC Sports Network.
- CBS Corporation – Leslie Moonves: CBS News, CNET.
- NewsCorp – Rupert Murdoch: Fox News, Wall St. Journal, Twentieth Century Fox.
- Disney – Robert Iger: Disney Channel, ABC News, ESPN, A+E Networks.
- Time Warner – Jeffrey L. Bewkes: New Line Cinema, Time Inc., HBO, Turner Broadcasting System, The CW Television Network, Castle Rock Entertainment.
- Viacom – Sumner M. Redstone: BET Networks, MTV Networks, and Paramount Pictures
The Council on Foreign Relations (CFR) is a US political think tank which has had an unhealthy influence over US media for many decades. It straddles all of the media outlets and indirectly creates policy by saturating US society with its Elitist propaganda. In October 30, 1993 Washington Post ombudsman Richard Harwood wrote an op-ed piece about the role of the CFR’s media members stating: “Their membership is an acknowledgment of their ascension into the American ruling class [where] they do not merely analyse and interpret foreign policy for the United States; they help make it.”  To make a foreign policy consistent and effective control over the US media is a vital part of this process.
Right up to 2011, the American media was pimping itself out to foreign despots eager to cultivate a marketable image in the West. Until she blew the whistle on her bosses, Amber Lyon was a respected, Emmy award winning CNN reporter. She was fired from her job for reporting the truth which didn’t go down too well with her superiors who had been paid by the government of Bahrain to paint them all in a favourable light. Systematic torture of peaceful protesters wasn’t meant to be part of the deal:
Lyon’s special report on Bahrain was scheduled to run on both CNN’s U.S. and international networks, but was pulled after only a limited showing due to pressure from the Bahrainis and their lobbyists. At the same time that Lyon was risking her life to do on-the-ground reporting in Bahrain; another CNN journalist was filming a paid propaganda piece on how the Bahraini leaders are a bunch of friendly pro-democracy reformers. That’s right … the Bahraini government paid CNN to do what was literally an infomercial for that brutal regime and pretend it was real journalism. Lyon says that China and many other foreign, authoritarian regimes also pay CNN and other mainstream networks to run flattering propaganda pieces. 
Public Relations is now a huge part of outsourcing for those within the US and European military-intelligence apparatus. Information dominance has never been more important for moulding the minds of the latest culture in the line of fire. SOS International, MPRI, L-3 Communications, CentenaGroup, CorpComm Group, MyMic, Polestar Applied Technology and ICOR Partners are just some of the many firms bidding for contracts from the Pentagon and NATO forces.
The Lincoln Group has excelled as one of the most highly charged propaganda outfits of our times, with “Insight and Influence anywhere, anytime,” as one of its slogans and the lucrative propaganda bonanza of “War on Terror” under its purview. The precocious and mysterious Mr. Christian Bailey is its chief executive director.
As a dynamic 30-year-old Oxford graduate with no public relations experience he coincidentally became the lucky recipient of a $100m (£56m) contract from Donald Rumsfeld’s Department of Defence. One of his first tasks was to buy space in Iraqi newspapers and deliberately place biased stories in favour of US interests.  In effect, Christian Bailey, (real name: Christian Martin Jozefowicz) is one of the top Psychological Warfare companies operating on behalf of the Pentagon: “In early 2003, just before the invasion, Mr. Bailey formed a Lincoln subsidiary, the Lincoln Alliance Corp, offering ‘tailored intelligence services [for] government clients faced with intelligence challenges.’ He also formed another subsidiary, Iraqex, which won a $6 million Pentagon contract to launch ‘an aggressive advertising and PR campaign that will accurately inform the Iraqi people of the coalition’s goals and gain their support.” 
The Lincoln Group website, at lincolngroup.com (now a dead link) painted a romantic picture of boundless innovation and cheery confidence as it strove to keep the wheels of propaganda spinning. Far more invasive black operations are taking place beyond its slick and clinical sounding PR pitch. Christian Bailey would no doubt have been happy with the website blurb which painting a patriotic surge of technicians doing their finger-tapping best for freedom. In fact, in the initial stages of the Iraq invasion and much later they were:
“… working with US and overseas corporations and organizations to develop an in-country capability in Baghdad and Basra. Located both at the center of power and the commercial gateway of the country, Lincoln will act as a central clearinghouse for businesses seeking to do business in Iraq. Lincoln will provide the information, research, and contacts necessary to develop and grow business within the country. Lincoln will also provide a threat and risk assessment service through its ASP service, allowing clients to understand and mitigate the perceived security risk and dangers present in country.” 
It all sounds as sharp and incisive as a surgeon’s scalpel, this “in country capability” – No mess, no bodies or blood – just the freshly plucked American patriotism and some substantial pay packets. This changed to a more coy description in August 2007 depicting the Lincoln Group as a “strategic communications firm that provides our clients with access to cultures which have historically been difficult to reach through traditional Western communications.”
Which means very non-traditional methods are used to gain access and extract resources.
One medal that Lincoln can pin on their staff suit and ties includes a significant amount of spin over the mass slaughter of civilians in the attacks on the Iraqi city of Fallujah. An ABC report confirmed Lincoln’s involvement through a strategy document entitled: ‘The Making of Heroes: Lincoln Group and the Fight for Fallujah’ — part of the Pentagon’s multi-million dollar public relations campaign to sell the American war effort to the Iraqis.” This revealed its attempts to promote ‘the strength, integrity and reliability of Iraqi Forces during the fight for Fallujah.’ In fact, it was to promote lies in favour of genocide that city came to represent. Almost 70 per cent of the city was destroyed by US forces, from civilian houses to medical centres and general services facilities. Thousands of innocent men, women and children were killed and almost half million refugee produced in the aftermath.  Let’s also not forget that Fallujah may have been used as a large-scale testing ground for experimental weaponry including chemical, laser, fission and microwave. Many witness reports from both Iraqi civilians and US military speak of injuries consistent with such warfare where persons were bleeding from their eyes and ears or simply melted where they stood. This is the kind of PR which enabled secrecy and media blackouts about such crimes to remain concealed. 
The report went on to say: “Under the heading ‘Rumor Control,’ according to the document, the Lincoln Group strives to dispel the notion that the war is ‘America’s fight’ or that Iraqi forces were defecting…‘It’s a little strange to see because even the Pentagon’s own estimates and the administration’s own estimates of the state of the Iraqi forces in 2004 when these fights for Fallujah occurred were never very glowing,’ said Michael O’Hanlon, senior fellow in foreign policy studies at the Brookings Institution.” 
The firm was also responsible for covertly planting wholly fabricated stories in Iraqi news outlets throughout 2005 “…designed to mask any connection with the U.S. military”. The stories were written by U.S. military “information operations” troop with “… the Lincoln Group’s Iraqi staff, or its subcontractors, sometimes [posing] as freelance reporters or advertising executives when they deliver the stories to Baghdad media outlets.” 
The Los Angeles Times reported that PSYOPS campaigns were being directed by “‘Information Operations Task Force’ in Baghdad, part of the multinational corps headquarters commanded by Army Lt. Gen. John R. Vines. … As part of a psychological operations campaign that has intensified over the last year, the task force also had purchased an Iraqi newspaper and taken control of a radio station, and was using them to channel pro-American messages to the Iraqi public. Neither is identified as a military mouthpiece.” 
Astonishingly, far from the practice being condemned it was summarily encouraged an internal review having “concluded that the US military was not violating U.S. law or Pentagon guidelines.”  The US military are thus continuing to pay Iraqi newspapers and other Middle Eastern countries to publish articles favourable to the United States commensurate with the required geo-political expansion within those regions. As we have seen, the practice isn’t restricted to foreign countries – they’ve been doing it in the Establishment media for years.
As all these undemocratic strategies are combined with the new global private armies masquerading as security firms and you have the emergence of a new kind of warfare characterized by PSYOPS and mercenary outsourcing. This was clearly part of Donald Rumsfeld’s new espionage baby the “Strategic Support Branch,” which “deploys small teams of case officers, linguists, interrogators and technical specialists alongside newly empowered special operations forces.” Not only was formed from “reprogrammed” funds but it operated “without explicit congressional authority or appropriation.” It was a far more secretive unit that rivalled the CIA and directly answerable to Donald Rumsfeld which some have said allowed the Defence Secretary far too much power. The Lincoln Group fits comfortably into Rumsfeld’s strategy “…to find new tools to penetrate and destroy the shadowy organizations, such as al Qaeda, that pose global threats to U.S. interests in conflicts with little resemblance to conventional war.” 
By 2006, the firm had entered into more than 20 Defence Department contracts one of which amounted to almost $100 million and a variety of commercial and non-military government deals. Iraq remained a major source of capital where research, communications and even direct investing in the newly acquired was carried out.  By September, the Lincoln Group was the beneficiary of another two-year contract “to handle PR and strategic communications” for the U.S. military in Iraq worth $6 million per year, with increases available for $20 million if necessary. This time the PR strategies wasn’t restricted to Iraq but were part of a strategy to manipulate perception and media throughout the Middle East.  In the same year the company was heavily involved on various PR fronts inside Pakistan, having established its office in Islamabad in November of 2005. Under cover of humanitarian research and coordination, market research and demography for companies intending to invest in Pakistan, the Lincoln Group is still a primary PR tool for the Pentagon and its long-term strategy of pre-emptive warfare and colonisation.
2008, proved to be another busy and lucrative year. A $14.3 million contract from the U.S. Army to promote the Army’s “Joint Improvised Explosive Device Defeat Organization campaign” which got under way in July.  By September, the Lincoln Group had won a three-year, $300 million contract for “information operations” in Iraq and Afghanistan. Since there are presently more than three times as many PR people in America as there are journalists, it seems the company’s expertise and many others like it, will be used by the Pentagon for many years to come. 
Network (1976) Ned Beatty as the personification of Media Corporatism
Perhaps the most searing indictment on the nature of the modern media was delivered by the 1976 film Network, a biting satire on the nature of broadcasting and media. Written with disturbing clarity and prophetic vision by Paddy Chayefsky, it tells the story of Howard Beale, a newscaster and media celebrity who teeters on the edge of a breakdown while exploring the dynamics of a popular news network that surrounds him. Peter Finch earned a posthumous for his portrayal of Beale second only to a star performance by Ned Beatty who plays the role of a corporate sponsor. An extract from his speech follows in which he berates the newscaster for attempting to wake up the people with his new one-man show. He is biting the hand that feeds him and more importantly, showing the true nature of television and the business world:
You are an old man who thinks in terms of nations and peoples. There are no nations. There are no peoples. There are no Russians. There are no Arabs. There are no third worlds. There is no West. There is only one holistic system of systems, one vast and immane, interwoven, interacting, multivariate, multinational dominion of dollars. Petro-dollars, electro-dollars, multi-dollars, reichmarks, rins, rubles, pounds, and shekels. It is the international system of currency which determines the totality of life on this planet. That is the natural order of things today. That is the atomic and subatomic and galactic structure of things today! And YOU have meddled with the primal forces of nature, and YOU… WILL… ATONE! Am I getting through to you, Mr. Beale?
You get up on your little twenty-one inch screen and howl about America and democracy. There is no America. There is no democracy. There is only IBM, and ITT, and AT&T, and DuPont, Dow, Union Carbide, and Exxon. Those are the nations of the world today.
What do you think the Russians talk about in their councils of state, Karl Marx? They get out their linear programming charts, statistical decision theories, minimax solutions, and compute the price-cost probabilities of their transactions and investments, just like we do. We no longer live in a world of nations and ideologies, Mr. Beale. The world is a college of corporations, inexorably determined by the immutable bylaws of business. The world is a business, Mr. Beale. It has been since man crawled out of the slime. And our children will live, Mr. Beale, to see that… perfect world… in which there’s no war or famine, oppression or brutality. One vast and ecumenical holding company, for whom all men will work to serve a common profit, in which all men will hold a share of stock. All necessities provided, all anxieties tranquilized, all boredom amused. And I have chosen you, Mr. Beale, to preach this evangel. 
The above extract is drawn directly from Chayefsky’s own experience in media. As we shall see in the coming chapters, it is a perception of life which exists across all domains of society. Increasing commercialisation, consolidation and monopolisation of media and entertainment networks has produced a dizzying array of “info-tainment” channels where quality is sacrificed for quantity permitting greater conformity to governmental and corporate influence which entice journalists to value their careers and kudos over truth. The information revolution and alternative media found on the internet is already chipping away at this Establishment edifice and it remains to be seen how long the internet can remain a source of genuine free speech.
The Washington Post publisher Katherine Graham epitomised why distrust of the MSM is at record levels. Terry Hansen quotes her astonishing offering in his Missing Times (p.83) where in 1988, she told a meeting of CIA officials: “… there are some things the general public does not need to know and shouldn’t. I believe democracy flourishes when the government can take legitimate steps to keep its secrets and when the press can decide whether to print what it knows.”
* Largely because of political sensitivities, psychological warfare has had several names during the 20th century, including propaganda, political warfare, and psychological operations (PSYOPS). It encompasses activities to weaken the enemy’s will, reinforce loyalty, and gain the military or moral support of the uncommitted, usually through the control and management of news and information. Its rise in importance is directly related to the development of print and other media, particularly in the last 100 years. Put simply, it is perception management. The aggressive needs of psychological warfare in a world war have since given way to the different aims of psychological operations in times of peace. Although the distinction between it and propaganda is often indistinct, the former is based on presenting a version of the truth (or perceived truth) to an enemy, whilst propaganda has come to mean peddling a lie, often to one’s own side. […] (Oxford Companion to British Military history) | As of 2010, the US Army has dropped the Vietnam-era name “psychological operations” in favour of a more neutral moniker of “Military Information Support Operations,” or MISO.
 http://www.outfoxed.org/ – “Rupert Murdoch’s War on Journalism.” (2002).
 ‘The CIA the Media’ – How Americas Most Powerful News Media Worked Hand in Glove with the Central Intelligence Agency and Why the Church Committee Covered It Up. By Carl Berstein. Rolling Stone on October 20, 1977.
 ‘How the Washington Post Censors the News’ A Letter to the Washington Post by Julian C. Holmes, April 25, 1992.
 Mockingbird: CIA Media Manipulation By Mary Louise, published in 2003 from http://www.rcfp.org/ archived on http://www.apfn.org/apfn/mockingbird.htm
 William Schaap: ‘The Media, CIA, FBI & Disinfo.’ http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=C4rFXjGJ5os
 Flat Earth News: An Award-winning Reporter Exposes Falsehood, Distortion and Propaganda in the Global Media by Nick Davies Published by Random House UK, 2009 | ISBN-10: 0099512688.
 ‘How the spooks took over the news’ by Nick Davies, The Independent, February 11, 2008.
 ‘U.S. Paid 10 Journalists for Anti-Castro Reports’By Abby Goodnough, The New York Times, September 9, 2006.
 ‘Ruling Class journalists’ by Richard Horwood, Washington Post October 30, 1993.
 ‘3 Time Emmy Award Winning CNN Journalist: Mainstream Media Takes Money from FOREIGN Dictators to Run Flattering Propaganda’ September 30, 2012 by Washington’s Blog.
 ‘So, just who is Christian Bailey?’ By Andrew Buncombe, The Independent, December 17, 2005.[Note: Christian Bailey is apparently now head of http://curatedinnovation.org/ which is “a Cambridge-based innovation lab which brings together leading university scientists, donors, and investors to create technology that will make an impact on a health issue they care about.”
 ‘Godalming geek made millions running the Pentagon’s propaganda war in Iraq’ By Patrick Foster and Tim Reid, Times online, December 24, 2005.
 http://www.lincolngroup.com/1068 Inside the Public Relations Blitz to Sell Iraq War Overseas ABC News, Dec. 14, 2005.1069 Ibid.1070 ‘Secret Unit Expands Rumsfeld’s Domain New Espionage Branch Delving Into CIA Territory’ By Barton Gellman, Washington Post, January 23, 2005.
 ‘Genocide In Fallujah’ By Brussells Tribunal, 27 March, 2005.| http://www.countercurrents.org/iraq-bt270305.htm
 ‘US Forces use WMD in Iraq’ | http://www.brusselstribunal.org/WMD.htm
 op. cit. ABC News Report.
 ‘U.S. Military Covertly Pays to Run Stories in Iraqi Press: Troops write articles presented as news reports. Some officers object to the practice,’ By Mark Mazzetti and Borzou Daragahi, Los Angeles Times, November 30, 2005.
 ‘Military Will Keep Planting Articles in Iraq. The ranking U.S. general there says a Pentagon review found the program does not violate policy. It could be replicated elsewhere,’ By Mark Mazzetti, Los Angeles Times, March 4, 2006.
 op. cit. Gellman.
 ‘Secret no more. Inside the Pentagon’s Iraqi PR firm,’ By Justin Fox, Fortune Magazine/Fox News, January 20, 2006.
 Lincoln Group Tapped for $6M Iraq PR Pact ODwyer, Sept. 26, 2006 | http://www.odwyerpr.com/editorial/0926iraq_lincoln_group.htm
‘LG Fights IEDs in Afghanistan,’ O’Dwyer’s PR Daily, August 7, 2008.
 ‘Defense Taps PR Firms for Iraq,’ O’Dwyer’s PR Daily, September 25, 2008.
 ‘Journalism Vacuum Filled by PR Professionals, or Spin Doctors?’ June 2, 2011 in Online public relations, http://www.intersectionofonlineandoffline.com
 Network (1976) Screenwriter: Paddy Chayefsky – “Fear of an Arab Buy-Out.” Ned Beatty as Arthur Jensen.