Blood and Soil

Occult Zionism I

 By M.K. Styllinski

“Gentile souls are of a completely different and inferior order. They are totally evil, with no redeeming qualities whatsoever.” …If every simple cell in a Jewish body entails divinity, is a part of God, then every strand of DNA is a part of God. Therefore, something is special about Jewish DNA…

Chabad Lubavitch Rabbi Yitzhak Ginsburgh quoting the founder of the Chabad movement Shneur Zalman of Liadi – Jewish Week – April 26, 1996.

***

“…in addition to a series of scurrilous sexual allegations against Jesus, the Talmud states that his punishment in hell is to be immersed in boiling excrement – a statement not exactly calculated to endear the Talmud to devout Christians.”

Israel Shahak, Jewish History, Jewish Religion The Weight of Three Thousand Years


(Note: Before tackling this post, it might be a good idea to read: The Z Factor series; Religious Authoritarians and  World Revolution.)

Zionism is both anti-Jewish, and anti-Christian. It is an atheistic repudiation of every characteristic of the Christian principle and the more down-to-earth Jewish principles of altruism which exist in every moderate religious affiliation to truth. Zionism breathed life into what came to be known as Nazism since it was founded on the very same tenets of racism and supremacy. Ironically, it was Adolf Hitler funded and supported by Zionists who took the battle against Talmudic teachings and political deception of Zionism; an inverted and distorted version of a truth. Finally, it was Hitler’s despotism and Anglo-American desire for war which provided a further layer of propaganda for the true instigators of chaos. It is in this sense that Jews and the rest of humanity have been had. There is no doubt that Zionism is at the forefront of covert operations to continue and extend this chaos culminating in their prophesied World War III. For Occult Zionists this is both a political and ideological drive. Global in its ambitions it extends far beyond the remit of Israeli nationalism. Accordingly, this relatively modern incarnation of Ashkenazi supremacy represents the best tool for psychopaths to create periodic revolutions, with monotheistic religions as the fail-safe mechanism to make sure that humanity keeps to the rule book.

Conversely,  – and the point has to be hammered home – it is an absurdity to think that there is a strictly Jewish conspiracy when Judaism itself was merely the instrument to control the mass mind over centuries, with an extremely effective Middle Eastern imperialism taking precedence. It’s also true to say that Judaism itself has been hijacked from its very inception, as we will see. The inculcated psychology of Jewish victimhood and its historic propaganda was necessary for the fulfillment of psychopathic conquest. Ethnocentrism, race supremacy, blood and soil, and the institution of atheist totalitarian regimes under Communism, Nazism, corporatism and the neo-liberal economics of our present age – occult Zionism lies behind these major pathologies in some form of another. It is therefore hugely simplistic to make ordinary Jews culpable for what is after all, a very long unbroken exercise in social engineering. No wonder common traits in Jewish psychology display both a creative genius and a variety of neuroses in equal measure as the result of the distillation of a cognitive elite predicated on being “chosen.”

It is this cultural victimhood that is based on the reality of persecution yet, has morphed into a veritable industry that insulates the Jewish tribe and by default, Zionism from criticism from within and without. It has become a very effective vicious circle. Modern day Jews ARE victims but the tragedy is that the propaganda which has been created by Zionism prevents them from seeing the real nature of this bias which increasingly defines Jewish meaning. It points to a profound truth about their place in the world: that Establishment Zionists are using Jews for a specific purpose – to be the primary tools for pathocratic world vision. So, the authoritarian followers within Judaism and Judaic cults such as Chabad Lubavitch have been specially chosen not to act as inherently spiritual beings destined to preside over gentiles and inaugurate a new theocratic Eden for all – as if that weren’t bad enough – but chosen as the most convenient tribe to transform the world into Chaos from which a global Pathocracy can emerge. It is in this way that it is not about any race or religion it is purely about a psychopathic elite. 

By that token, it is evident from a spiritual perspective that the Palestinians have taken on the mantle of a collective sacrifice to wake up humankind, a tragic irony in light of the millions killed by the Nazis. It makes it all the more bizarre since there is no such thing as a Jewish race as many scholars are now discovering. Archaeology, history and anthropological finds of the last 200 years have shown us that Jewish peoples come from wide genetic variants of a Semitic base. The dominant band of Jews currently ensconced in Zionism and many nodes of power are the Rothschild-led Ashkenazis with their origins in Khazria who are, essentially, not Jewish at all. It appears that the Ashkenazi heritage is currently micro-managing the destiny of Jews, those whom have come up through the complex gene pool that makes up the Jewish tribe.

The foot soldiers of Zionism and their associated mythology of Israel – even vast tracts of biblical Judaism – is a deception against not just humanity but the religion of Judaism and its followers, most of whom the militant Zionists intend to sacrifice as a “final solution;” the practice run of which was seen in the partly Wall St. funded Third Reich. It is for this reason: to condone the legitimacy of the State of Israel requires a very different set assumptions compared to other nation states. This is what makes the very existence of modern Israel, in its present form, extremely problematic as it means condoning the invasion of Palestine in 1948 and the subsequent ethnic cleansing of Palestinian inhabitants. It means the acceptance of the Jews as the chosen people of “G-d” and therefore their exclusive right to possess Palestine “because it said so in the Torah,” – a truism that is repeated through the hammer of Christian Zionism with the Bible as the anvil of choice. It means this religious covenant gives them an absolute right to do as they please because of this much trumpeted special status. Zionists have taken these assumptions and perceived successes (deception, ethnic cleansing, massacres, blatant human rights abuses) as proof positive that God is on their side, thus affirming that the authoritarian way of Yahweh is the only way. So, it is little wonder that the peace process never gets off the ground since Zionists have no wish for peace; Yahweh has decreed, by blood and carnage, that such a covenant remains unchanged despite the inconvenient truth that Palestinians and Semitic groups were on the land for around 1,500 years or more.

Soldier-and-girl

Soldier and Girl by British graffiti artist Banksy found on the West Bank Wall

Due to the habitual lies and disinformation flooding our consciousness on this issue, it becomes impossible to speak about these taboos in general, let alone to many Jewish people. The institutions set up to police these lies are just too strong, too ingrained. To say that this will induce cognitive dissonance within most Jewish people is probably an understatement but wilful blindness to the voluminous evidence cannot be held at bay any longer. After all, most of the heroic dissent comes, as it should, from Jews themselves, most notably some of our well-known Jewish scholars alive today among them: Norman Finkelstein, Israel Shamir, Gilad Atzmon, Israel Shahak, Mordechai Vanunu and Eduard Hodos to name but a handful who have taken the courageous step to stand against the Zionist-MOSSAD machine. Of course, to the Zionist and Israeli lobbyists these are “self-hating” crypto-Jews who have sold out. But they are nothing of the kind. By cutting through the propaganda and mythos surrounding Jewish culture they enable us to elevate ourselves away from a perception bias and group-think;  to see not only the way the Zionist Establishment have progressively de-humanised Palestinians and occupied their land, but paved the way for a more courageous responsibility regarding the history of the Israeli-Palestinian conflict and our relationship to its continuance.

We are ALL responsible for the rise of psychopathy in our midst and its hijacking of our social and cultural heritage, whether we are Jewish, Muslim, Christian or followers of the Human Potential movement. Psychopaths occur in every societal domain, race, nation and culture. Judaism and Zionism does have an exceptional part to play in this vast deception but it is not the root source. Jews are rather the victim of a manipulation through time as the designated fall-guys for what is a Grand Plan of control which  applies to everyone, now and in the future. The psychopaths goal is to replace normal human beings by a careful centuries old “pogram” for all. We are slap-bang in the middle of a World Revolution borne of the same unbroken stream of psychopathic currents which have comprised totalitarian regimes of every shade; behind all of these upheavals have been Talmudic agents, and in the modern age revisionist Zionism rooted firmly in a branch of “Jewish” freemasonry working in unison with the two other arms of the Three Establishment Model (3EM) the liberal Anglo-American set and the Conservative factions overseen by a small global occult body. And it is the occult faction of the Zionist Establishment with higher members of MOSSAD who I believe are causing the most chaos in the world today; a small number of black magicians who apply a modern form of techno-sorcery drawing on a mix of Crowleyian/Thelemic Babylonian and Talmudic black magick to hold the world to ransom.

One major strand – and it is only a strand – of this managed chaos to a singular “order” is Judaism – the authority of the Torah and Talmud – the belief that the Messiah will come to unite the Jewish people in the land of Israel. Alarmingly, its occult foundation is as influential as it was when it emerged out of Levitical authority during the Jewish “captivity” in Babylon. To understand how Talmudic black magicians of MOSSAD are currently invoking their “demons” on the world stage we need to discover why the Talmud is so important to the occult-Zionist Establishment.

Talmud_setThe Talmud set (wikipedia)

The Babylonian Talmud is a large collection of ancient mystical writings which forms the basis of Rabbinical and Jewish doctrine today. In amongst these 73 tomes is an amalgamation of ancient Jewish mystical writings influenced by the “Oral Torah” (Mishnah) and later fused in and around the 5th Century with the works of the Zohar or Midrash ha-Zohar the foundation to the Kabbalah. The latter is said to be the esoteric form of of the Talmud known as the Midrash, and thus plays a hugely important part in freemasonry today. It is split into two sections: the Mishnah: a compendium of the Torah’s oral tradition which dates from 200 CE and the Gemara: explanatory notes on the Mishnah, Kabbalah and the Hebrew Bible. With these respective commentaries are the Halakhah, covering legal and ritual matters and the Aggadah, which is concerned with theological and ethical discourse. Strict observation of Halakhah rules is mandatory for Orthodox Jews.

This in turn, is divided into six major sections, called sedarim (plural of seder, “order”). This is the sequence of the sedarim in the Soncino Talmud:

  • Seder Zeraim (seeds)
  • Seder Moed (festivals)
  • Seder Nashim (women)
  • Seder Nezikin (damages)
  • Seder Kodashim (sacrifices)
  • Seder Tohoroth (cleanness)

Each Seder contains between seven and twelve tractates, or books as follows: Sanhedrin, Berakoth, Shabbath, Yebamoth, Kethuboth, Nedarim, Nazir, Sotah, Gittin, Baba Kamma, Baba Mezi’a, Baba Bathra, Abodah Zarah, Horayoth, Niddah, and Tohorot. [1]

(Confused? That’s the idea).

Written in Rabbinic Hebrew or “Tannaitic” and Aramaic, the Talmud as a whole is more than 6,200 pages long offering teachings from thousands of rabbis on topics as diverse as ethics, esoteric philosophy, law, social etiquette, sexuality, and many other opinions all couched in sometimes extremely obscure and often non-sensical dictums which some have likened to Zen koans and others as meaningless word salad.

First_page_of_the_first_tractate_of_the_Talmud_(Daf_Beis_of_Maseches_Brachos) First page of_the first tractate of the talmud daf beis of maseches brachos. (wikipedia)

First page of the first tractate of the talmud daf beis of maseches brachos. (wikipedia)

There are in fact, two editions of the Talmud; one composed by Babylonian Levite priests and one by Jews who lived in ancient Jerusalem. Between 530 BC and 70 AD saw the rise of the Babylonian Empire and the rule of the Jewish Levite priests. After the destruction of the first Temple in A.D. 70 by the Romans led by General Titus, this marked the beginning of the Second Temple period in Jewish history when the bulk of the Babylonian Talmud or “Bavli” was created.

A bit of history is order to place the BT in context.

Babylon plays an enormous part in the development of Judaism. The story of the Babylonian Jews begins with their exile in the 6 B.C. The well known biblical and Chaldean and Jewish King Nebuchadnezzar of Babylon (588-7 B.C.) was attempting to increase his rule in the area between Egypt, Phoenicia and Canaan. After annexing Western provinces of Syria, he went on to attack Jerusalem in 597 BC capturing the city, or what was left of it. Thereafter, he apparently deported large numbers of the Jewish population to Babylon, many of whose origins were from Judea. Despite the trauma, the Jewish tribes were allowed to retain their autonomy and religious identity. After the Babylonian Empire fell to King Cyrus in 53 B.C. many Jews returned to Palestine, which wasn’t necessarily a good move since Palestine had been ravaged by war. This may have been a factor for those who decided to stay. Those that made Babylon their home flourished, particularly in business and local politics while retaining their Jewish beliefs.

Nebuchadnezzar_II

Nebuchadnezzar II inscribed on coin of the period

Back in Jerusalem in 132 AD a Jewish rebellion took place against the building of a new temple on the remains of the second temple (See Temple Mount) but was put down by the Romans. This caused a new influx of Jews to Babylon enriching Jewish life both in terms of population and political influence reaching about 150,000. Though many could have returned to Palestine, a cognitive elite of Jewish intellectuals stayed on, going from strength to strength. Is this not similar to what happened in America in relation to the manufactured state of Israel? Such parallels from ancient history to the present day is noted by historian Max Dimont:

“When history presented the Jews of Babylon with a passport to return to a reconstituted Palestine, they declined the invitation, just as American Jews declined a similar invitation to return to a reconstituted Israel. By this refusal, the Babylonian Jews created the Diaspora. By their refusal, the American Jews perpetuated the Diaspora. In Babylonia, Diaspora Judaism slowly gained intellectual ascendancy over Palestinian Judaism. In the 20th Century history placed the scepter of Diaspora Judaism in the willing hands of the American Jews.” [2]

Babylonia and the Jews do seem to reflect what we find in modern United States: intrinsic adaptability yet remaining culturally separated from the dominant culture; networked nepotism and strong business connections, rapid and accumulated wealth within small groups and inter-marrying within their own families. Israel is not and has never been the final refuge of a landless people. The Diaspora remains yet there is a strong draw from Zionists for Diaspora Jews to return to the homeland. This is not to fuse with the soul of Judaism however, but to be used as sacrificial bait on an altar of idolatry – a Grand Ritual for and by the Zionist elite.

It was probable that the sources for the Talmud were drawn from Jewish centres of Mesopotamia, now known as Iraq, which is an important point to remember for its modern relationship to occult Zionist ritual. It is also the source of black magick practices care of the Levite priests of the day and their obsession with Kabbalistic invocation. The Levite priests proved to have an enduring legacy.

Recent studies have placed the Levites along the Ashkenazi lineage and thus Khazar origins. [3] This will become important to remember as we proceed. The priests were said to have been drawn from one of the twelve tribes of Israel (Levi) and who were part of the emergence of the Pharisees. They were originally landless tribe priests with their origins in Judah and whose allegiance and authority came from the Jehovah (Yahweh) on Mount Sinai. In effect, they were the true authoritarians and progenitors of the harshest doctrines of Mosaic Law and thus the true fathers of Judaism. Their nomadic lifestyles meant they were able to indoctrinate many with the idea of Jehovah’s war of conquest where a New Jewish theocracy was the only way in which to manifest God on Earth.  The Levites set themselves up as “divine” Judges over the Jewish people. 

levite3

Detail from A Levite Priest holds up Holy Hands – James Tissot (1836-1902)

Compassion and love was inimical to Levitical judgement and in accordance with the bloody authority of Jehovah. As such they represent the ideological ancestors of Zio-Conservatism, Christian Fundamentalism and Jewish sects of Chabad Lubavitch today. Indeed, it is the Levite priests and their Talmudic law which gave rise to the fifth book of the Hebrew Bible and of the Jewish Torah named Deuteronomy. It was here that much of the seeds of slavery, war, genocide and revolution found their way into the Middle East and eventually Western societies. With the corralling of the Judahites and the imposition of a black magick infused Talmudism, A supposed oral Torah and Mosaic authoritarianism became the pathogen of psychopathy which infected the destiny of nations, perhaps more than any other socio-cultural and economic phenomenon.

The Levites set about compiling this apparently “secret” oral teaching of the Torah after the Assyrian conquest of Judah. By 621 B.C. Deuteronomy had been written and was socially engineering the masses from the Temple in Jerusalem. It was designed to create the maximum amount of fear for maximum control. And that is precisely what it did and in ways that would reverberate through time. 

Author and Journalist Douglas Reed’s Controversy of Zion (1956) describes the Babylon Talmud’s genesis and its defining quality under the Levite priests and their Old Testament wrath:

Deuteronomy is to formal Judaism and Zionism what the Communist Manifesto was to the destructive revolution of our century. It is the basis of the Torah (“the Law”) contained in the Pentateuch, which itself forms the raw material of the Talmud, which again gave birth to those “commentaries” which together constitute the Judaic “law”.

Therefore Deuteronomy is also the basis of the political programme, of worldly dominion over nations despoiled and enslaved, which has been largely realized in the West during this Twentieth Century. Deuteronomy is of direct relevancy to the events of our day, and much of the confusion surrounding them disperses if they are studied in its light.

It was read, in 621 BC, to so small an audience in so small a place that its great effects for the whole world, through the following centuries into our time, are by contrast the more striking.

Before Deuteronomy was compiled only the “oral tradition” of what God said to Moses existed. The Levites claimed to be the consecrated guardians of this tradition and the tribes people had to take their word for it (their pretensions in this respect chiefly caused the anger of the Israelite “prophets”). If anything had been written down before Deuteronomy was read, such manuscripts were fragmentary and in priestly keeping, and as little known to the primitive tribesmen as the Greek poets to Kentucky hills folk today.

That Deuteronomy was different from anything that had been known or understood before is implicit in its name, which means “Second Law”. Deuteronomy, in fact, was Levitical Judaism, first revealed; the Israelites (as already shown) “were not Jews” and had never known this “Law”.

Deuteronomy stood the earlier tradition on its head, if it was in harmony with the moral commandments. However, the Levites were within their self-granted right in making any changes they chose, for they held that
they were divinely authorized to amend the Law, as orally revealed by God to Moses […]

For that matter, they also claimed that Moses had received at Sinai a secret oral Torah, which must never be committed to writing. In view of the later inclusion of the Old Testament in one volume with the Christian New Testament, and the average Gentile’s assumption that he thus has before his eyes the whole of “the Mosaic Law”, this qualification is of permanent interest. [4]

The legacy of the Levites as the foreunners of our present day Zionists is never clearer. They both draw their aspiritual inspiration and action from other than what we consider to be the message of love, compassion and knowledge. Indeed, it is obvious that Mosaic Law became something very far from anything resembling “spiritual” under these priestly elect. The Pharisees, from which the Levites hailed had a less than impeccable pedigree. The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia describes the Pharisees’ contribution in these terms:

“The Jewish religion as it is today traces its descent, without a break, through all the centuries, from the Pharisees. Their leading ideas and methods found expression in a literature of enormous extent, of which a very great deal is still in existence. The Talmud is the largest and most important single member of that literature, and round it are gathered a number of Midrashim, partly legal (Halachic) and partly works of edification (Haggadic). This literature, in its oldest elements, goes back to a time before the beginning of the Common Era, and comes down into the Middle Ages. Through it all run the lines of thought which were first drawn by the Pharisees…” [5]

And according to Talmudic rabbis today, Talmudism seamlessly transformed from this Levite Talmdism with roots in Jehovah and Mosaic Law into Medieval Rabbinsim and to Modern Rabbinsim, thus modern Judaism as “the spirit of ancient Pharisee survives unaltered.” [6] Even more importantly, the Levite priests drawn from the Pharisees were the object of Jesus Christ’s wrath – an extremely rare occurrence for this “man of righteousness”. What was it that caused him to lose his temper when confronted with the actions of this authority? Possibly because Jesus knew very well that the blood and soil of Jehovah/Yahweh was nothing remotely to do with his message and rather they were a priestly order for a different “God” entirely. Jesus thought of the Levite priests as “Hypocrites, Vipers, Serpents” (Mt. 12:34, 23:33). He could not have been clearer in his description when he said: “Ye are of your father the devil, and the lusts of your father ye will do. He was a murderer from the beginning, and abode not in the truth, because there is no truth in him. When he speaketh a lie, he speaketh of his own: for he is a liar, and the father of it.” (John 8:44 (4) And he went further, viewing the council of priests as impostors: “Behold, I will make them of the synagogue of Satan, which say they are Jews, and are not, but do lie” (Rev 3:9)

JesusPharisees

Gustave Doré: Dispute between Jesus and the Pharisees

 Jesus knew exactly who these people were and was not having any of it. He knew that the Levite priests were using the temple to run their financial cartels, acting exactly like their father Jehovah who encouraged war, murder, rape and pillage in the name of God, where truth was non-existent and lies were the primary currency of their exchange. If you had the individual associated with the mythology of Christ condemning such people he must have had a pretty good reason to do so. It is here that we see the exact similarities to modern-day highly placed Zionists who are continuing the same tradition.

In exploring the roots of Jewish influence and separatism Reed highlighted the role of Levites and the lineage of the Pharisees sect. The narrative of a chosen people was carefully nurtured by the Pharisees who occupied “the second place in the pedigree of the sect which has brought about such large events in our time.”

Reed continues:

“The name ‘Pharisee’, according to the Judaist authorities, means ‘one who separates himself’, or keeps away from persons or things impure in order to attain the degree of holiness and righteousness required in those who would commune with God. The Pharisees formed a league or brotherhood of their own, admitting to their inmost councils only those who, in the presence of three members, pledged themselves to the strict observance of Levitical purity. They were the earliest specialists in secret conspiracy, as a political science.”  [7]

It is this political cunning that defines Levitical machinations and the engineering of Jewish destiny. Does it not remind us of  Zionist geopolitics and lobbying financed by the House of Rothschild?

Reed goes further:

Deuteronomy is above all a complete political programme: the story of the planet, created by Jehovah for this “special people”, is to be completed by their triumph and the ruination of all others. The rewards offered to the faithful are exclusively material: slaughter, slaves, women, booty, territory, empire. The only condition laid down for these rewards is observance of “the statutes and judgments”, which primarily command the destruction of others. The only guilt defined lies is non-observance of these laws. Intolerance is specified as observance; tolerance as non-observance, and therefore as guilt. The punishments prescribed are of this world and of the flesh, not of the spirit. Moral behaviour, if ever demanded, is required only towards co-religionists and “strangers” are excluded from it.” [8]

It was this hierarchical power base that allowed the ponerisation of what was essentially a vengeance-based ruse for land conquest with various Semitic peoples “chosen” as bait. No wonder Jesus threw out some of these priests from the Temple – he could SEE what they were and what this meant for his own message of self-knowledge and the development of conscience. What the Levite priests were proposing was an anti-Christian rule of law, according to some Jewish scholars based in part  on elements from the Platonic political system which was adopted as early as 142-63 BC. This law decreed: “… that every phase of human conduct be subject to religious sanctions which are in fact to be manipulated by the ruler …” [9] which appears to be forerunner of distinctly Zio-Conservative, Machiavellian tactics. The Levitical rule did not derive from the more moderate source of the Torah but was bastardised by their scribes who had taken the revisions and liberal expansions directly from the priests claiming it was the original doctrine orally bestowed on Mount Sinai. How could anyone argue?

One man did however, and saw it for what it was: a tactic to reintroduce pathocratic rule as a replacement to spiritual integration. Jesus Christ admonished the priests and warned people to have nothing to do with these manipulations when he said: “By the traditions of your elders you make void the Word of God.” (St Matthew 15). The Old Testament fury was re-engineering love and compassion into hatred, fear and separatism care of the Talmud. As Douglas Reed mentions, the difference between the Torah and Talmud is a crucial distinction in the evolution of Biblical theology and practice:

If not different, then why should not the anti-Christian Talmud be added to the Christian Bible? If that were done the entire work would extend along several shelves of a library, and the New Testament would be a tiny pamphlet, lost among and excommunicated by the Talmudic mass, the teaching of which is thus summarized by the Talmudic scholar Drach: ‘The precepts of justice, of equity, of charity towards one’s neighbours, are not only not applicable with regard to the Christian, but constitute a crime in anyone who would act differently … The Talmud expressly forbids one to save a non-Jew from death … to restore lost goods, etc., to him, to have pity on him’. The theological decision about the ‘equal divine authority’ of the Torah seems to have introduced an element of confusion into the Christian lesson from which Christianity itself in the end might not recover. The Talmudic precepts just quoted are not essentially different in nature from those included in Deuteronomy when that ‘second Law’ was made public a thousand years before the Palestinian Talmud was completed; they are merely given a specifically anti-Christian application.” [10]

The Babylonian Talmud and the priests graduated to a mix of superstitious occultism and the inclusion of blood sacrifice and bizarre rituals which Jesus understandably didn’t want to have anything to do with. (More on this later in the series). They were the prefect nemesis, using Divine law to cover their ambition for power. The message of “Love your enemies” was after all, supplanted by the Pharisaic Law of “hate your enemies”, so it didn’t take long before the template of spiritual dispensation to be rapidly eclipsed.

Over centuries the Talmud became the de facto barbed-wire fence around the Jewish tribe, or as Reed States: “‘the fence around the Law’; the outer tribal stockade around the inner tribal stockade.”  The Talmud had already “laid down the rules and regulations not only for the Babylonian Jews but for the whole of Judaism” and where “…The Jews throughout the world recognized the academies in Babylonia as the authoritative centre of Judaism, and regarded any laws they passed as binding.” The Talmud essentially took the place of the Torah, just as the Torah earlier had replaced the “oral traditions”. [11]

Babylonian_Talmud_2

Babylonian Talmud (wikipedia)

As practiced by Jews for the last 1000 years or so, the Halakhah legal system of classical Judaism is maintained to this day as Orthodox Judaism and is based almost exclusively on the Talmud. Due to the impossible ( and intentional) complexity of the legal dialogue within these volumes, a progressive codification – even dilution – of the core Talmudic tracts has taken place,  thus it has been easier to cover up their controversial nature. It is this almost impenetrable complexity that defines the Talmud. Ever increasing complexity is the bane of our present culture since it allows secrecy, double-speak and paramoralistic discourse to flourish. We see complexity in the evolution of economics, corporations and government as it diffuses responsibility and personal accountability in favour of hierarchical rule thus encouraging obedience and blindness to the moral dimension. Though modern Jewish translators mostly rabbis with probable bias, have diluted and/or omitted passages from the original, it is no understatement to say that these tombs of Jewish mysticism are chock full of mystifying maxims, anecdotes, koans and general advice of such a bizarre nature it has taxed secular Jews and Rabbis alike, often tying themselves up in knots in order to place some of the teachings into something close to resembling a coherent and accessible narrative.

Indeed, the Talmud is so incomprehensible in parts that even one of the most devoutly Jewish authors – Herman Wouk in his 1961 book This is My God had to share his frustrations:

“Talmudic political judgment often shows the bitterness of a people trodden by wave after wave of oppressors.” […] “Since the Talmud reports the sayings of hundreds of savants over many centuries, it abounds in contradictory maxims, in conflicting metaphysical guesses, in baffling switches from cynicism to poetry, from misanthropy to charity, from dislike of women to praise for them …. In a word, one can say almost anything about this recording of the talk of wise men through seven centuries, and then find a passage to support it.”  [12]

Portae_Lucis,_Joseph_Gikatilla

“Portae Lucis by Joseph Gikatilla (1248 -1325) Augsburg, 1516 The book is a Latin translation by Paulus Ricius of Gikatilla’s most influential kabbalistic work” (wikipedia)

It could be said that the Kabbalah has some alchemical allusions to cryptic codes and thereby some measure of profundity – in places. However, the vast majority of Talmudic discourse can hardly be said to fall into the same category. For instance, the most minute and seemingly inconsequential minutiae of Jewish lives are placed under a prurient microscope, from toilet habits to medicinal remedies.

The 1939 edition of Hebraic Literature, Translations from the Talmud, Midrashim, and Kabbala by M. K Harris offers a few examples:

  • “One who eats an ant is flogged five times forty stripes save one.”
  • “Demons … have wings like angels … [and] they know the future.”
  • “For night-blindedness, let a man take a hair-rope and bind one end of it to his own leg and the other to a dog’s, then let the children clatter a potsherd after him, and call out, “Old man! Dog! Fool! Cock! …”
  • “The bald-headed, and dwarfed, and the blear-eyed are ineligible for the priesthood.”
  • “Only kings … eat roast meat with mustard.”
  • “It is not right for a man to sleep in the daytime any longer than a horse sleeps. And how long is the sleep of a horse? Sixty respirations.” [13]

Author Michael Hoffman also provides numerous examples and a detailed analysis in his Judaism Re-Discovered (2008). His research unveils everything from Kabbalistic Magick to ritual murder and many other less dramatic but no less distasteful instructions that seldom sees the light of day, yet remain a vital part of some sects of Orthodox Judaism and Chabad Lubavitch. Though Hoffman’s rendering of Judaism and Talmudic lore is very much in keeping with a kind of Christian, school-teacher puritanism that one might have imagined had disappeared a long time ago, he does offer an extraordinarily comprehensive analysis of the Talmud’s secrets (and if you can stand the lack of proper formatting and shocked Christian proselytising throughout). Hoffman provides further examples of inscrutable Talmudic “wisdom,” the worst of which indicates the cruder aspects of Kabbalistic black magick and bizarre forms of legalise:

  • Eating dates makes one ineligible to render legal decisions. (BT Kethuboth 10b).
  • The medicinal value of the excrement of a white dog: to heal the disease of pleurisy (“catarrh”) a Jew should “take the excrement of a white dog and knead it with balsam, but if he can possibly avoid it he should not eat the dog’s excrement as it loosens the limbs.” (BT Gittin 69b).
  • Epilepsy is caused by standing naked in front of a lamp, or sexual relations with the light on. (BT Pesahim 112b).
  • Not burying cut fingernails causes miscarriages. (BT Moed Katan 18a).
  • Everyone has two kidneys, one of which inspires good deeds; the other, bad deeds. (BT Berakoth 61a).
  • After seven years, hyenas turn into bats. After even longer periods, they turn into thorns and demons. (BT Baba Kamma 16a).
  • Bad-temper is caused by birth on Monday; riches and sexual promiscuity caused by birth on Tuesday; those who desecrate the Sabbath by being born thereon will die on the Sabbath. (BT Shabbatb, 156a).
  • Solar eclipses caused by improperly mourning the death of particular Rabbis; Lunar eclipses caused by raising small cattle in Israel. (BT Sukkah 29a).
  • It is forbidden for dogs, women or palm trees to pass between two men, nor may others walk between dogs, women or palm trees. Special dangers are involved if the women are menstruating or sitting at a crossroads. (BT Pesahim, 111a).
  • Demonic danger is involved when one drinks water on the evenings of Wednesdays and Sabbaths. (BT Pesahim 112a).
  • Improper occupations: ass and doctors, butchers, etc., with some camel drivers, sailor, controversy concerning shopkeepers, sailors.(BTKiddushin 82a).
  • Sixteen million Israelite children were wrapped in scrolls and burned alive by the Romans at Bethar. (BT Gittin 58a).
  • Four billion Israelites were killed by the Romans in one city, the city of Bethar. (Some rabbis say “only” forty million were killed there). (BT Gittin 57b).
  • Zimri engaged Cozbi in sexual relations 424 times in one day. Also her womb was one-and½ feet wide. (BT Sanhedrin 82b).
  • Obed-Edom’s wife and eight daughters-in-law all give birth to six children at a time (BT Berakoth 63b).
  • Those who suffer extreme poverty, are afflicted with bowel diseases, suffer persecution by the Romans or have a bad wife, will not go to hell (BT Pesahim 113b).
  • He who stays unmarried, doesn’t wear phylacteries, or doesn’t wear shoes, cannot go to heaven (BT Pesahim 113b).
  • Women cannot conceive before they reach twelve years and a day, according to the Rabbis. When asked how it was possible that a gentile girl had conceived at age six, the Rabbi replied that gentiles are not human. (BT Niddah 45a). [14]

Apart from the consistent obsession with sex and toilet habits (which would explain a lot of the reasons behind the rise of Freudian psychoanalysis – more on this later) the above bar-room brawl trivia which seems to litter more solemn passages in the Talmud, it is the themes of Jewish supremacy, hatred of those outside the Jewish tradition (Gentiles) and their inherent inferiority that appear to be most common. What is apparent at the outset of perusing the Talmud is that the non-Jew is treated with the utmost contempt. There is no tolerance or compassion, only ways to deceive, out do, slander, abuse and even murder the “the other” or “the Goyim” (cattle). Quite simply, non-Jews are viewed as animals, a belief that has continued to be held by many in Israel – especially within military and right-wing groupings to this day. As we can see, anti-Christian abuse also forms the backbone of the Talmud and thus much of Judaism:

  • “If a ‘goy’ (Gentile) hits a Jew he must be killed.” (Sanhedrin 58b)
  • “If a Jew finds an object lost by a ‘goy’ it does not have to be returned.” (Baba Mezia 24a)
  • “If a Jew murders a ‘goy’ there will be no death penalty.” (Sanhedrin 57a)
  • What a Jew steals from a ‘goy’ he may keep.” (Sanhedrin 57a)
  • “Jews may use subterfuges to circumvent a ‘goy.’” (Baba Kamma 113a)
  • “All children of the ‘goyim’ (Gentiles) are animals.” (Yebamoth 98a)
  • “Girls born of the ‘goyim’ are in a state of ‘niddah’ (menstrual uncleanness!) from birth.” (Abodah Zarah 36b)
  • “The ‘goyim’ are not humans. They are beasts.” (Baba Mezia 114b)
  • “If you eat with a ‘goy’ it is the same as eating with a dog.” (Tosapoth, Jebamoth 94b)
  • “Even the best of the ‘goyim’ should all be killed.” (Soferim 15)
  • “Sexual intercourse between the ‘goyim’ is like intercourse between animals.” (Sanhedrin 74b)
  • “When it comes to a Gentile in peace times, one may harm him indirectly, for instance, by removing a ladder after he had fallen into a crevice.” (Shulkan Arukh, Yoreh De ‘ah, 158, Hebrew Edition only)
  • “Yashu’ [derogatory for ‘Jesus’] is in Hell being boiled in hot excrement.” (Gittin 57a)
  • “Yashu (Jesus) was sexually immoral and worshipped a brick.” (Sanhedrin 107b)
  • “Yashu (Jesus) was cut off from the Jewish people for his wickedness and refused to repent.” (Sotah 47a)
  • “Miriam the hairdresser had sex with many men.” (Shabbath 104b, Hebrew Edition only)
  • “She who was the descendant of princes and governors (the virgin Mary) played the harlot with carpenters.” (Sanhedrin 106a)
  • “Christians who reject the Talmud will go to hell and be punished there for all generations.”(Rosh Hashanah 17a)
  • A gentile who strikes a Jew deserves death. Striking a Jew is in God’s eyes an assault on the Divine Presence. (BT Sanhedrin 58b).
  • All the blessings which gentiles enjoy come to them only because of God’s regard for Israel. (BT Yebamoth 63a).
  • A Jew need not pay a gentile the wages owed him for work (BT Sanhedrin 57a).
  • If an ox of an Israelite gores an ox of a Canaanite there is no liability; but if an ox of a Canaanite gores an ox of an Israelite…the payment is to be in full. (BT Baba Kamma 37b).
  • The deeds of Israel are righteous, but the gentiles are capable only of sin. (BT Baba Bathra 10b).
  • Wine touched by a gentile renders has been defiled and is unfit for use by the Jews. (BT Abodah Zarah 72b).
  • Thieves of unknown ethnic background broke into a Jew’s building and touched his wine. Since he did not know who touched the wine, he was unsure whether or not the thieves had been gentiles and whether or not it had been defiled by a gentile’s touch. The rabbis ruled that since the majority of thieves in that city were Jews, the wine was undefiled. (BT Abodah Zarah 70a).
  • A sly rabbi debates God and through trickery defeats Him. God admits the rabbi won the debate. (BT Baba Mezia 59b). [15] [16]

It seems that sex and their perverse corollaries are used as a means for pleasure, authority and retribution. The Abodah Zarah 17a states: “…that there is not a whore in the world that the Talmudic sage Rabbi Eleazar has not had sex with and yet, in Hagigah 27a declares that no rabbi can ever go to hell.”  [17] All of this is rounded off with a Levitical totalitarianism in that “…whosoever disobeys the rabbis deserves death and will be punished by being boiled in hot excrement in hell” (BT Erubin 21b). (So, at least you have the same punishment bestowed upon Jesus, if that’s any consolation). 

Maimonides-2

18th Century portrait of Moshe ben Maimon (“Maimonides”)

The contempt of Gentiles stems from the brainwashing of Jews in ancient times in the much the same way it occurs today. Though many modern liberal American Jews are unaware of the root belief, race supremacy lies at its heart, with fears of racial amalgamation with gentiles still a driving force in marriage and relationships, since maintaining the “purity” of the Judaic nation is paramount. The segregationist laws forbids the adoption of Gentile customs even when they are derived from the Bible: “The Yid should be distinguished from the goyim [slang for Gentile]…Firstly, the basic halacha is that any of the practices that goyim have for their worship are forbidden to the Yiddin. Furthermore, even if the Torah sanctions this worship, Yiddin may not engage in it, if this practice was subsequently adopted by the goyim.”  [18]

Since non-Jews are not considered neighbours (‘You shall not exploit your neighbor’ is written, and it is not written ‘a gentile’ (BT Baba Kamma 113a) distrust, suspicion, subterfuge, lies and hatred of non-Jews is the formal doctrine of Maimonides and Jewish law the final solution of which is murder if necessary. The former Gush Emunim leader Rabbi Israel Ariel summed up this belief when he stated: ‘A Jew who killed a non-Jew is exempt from human judgment and has not violated the religious prohibition of murder.” [19] Though the ultra-right wing Gush Emunin movement has thankfully dissolved, its common beliefs have not, concentrated as they are within the Zionist Establishment and MOSSAD. It also offers a possible reason why so many in the Israeli military see Palestinian lives as worth nothing more than animals and how easy it is for many Israelis to rationalise their active or passive support for the occupied territories and genocidal bombing campaigns such as we saw most recently in Gaza, in 2008, 2009, 2011 and 2014.

The seeds of usury were also sown in the tracts of the Talmud. Zionists have used this tradition and financial acumen to great effect in order to circumnavigate economic laws and forge new socio-economic systems which benefit their political aspirations. Loss of prestige and power within Gentile society inevitably leads a denial of their objectives so strenuous efforts have been been made to monopolise and extend financial architecture, (Federal Reserve, Bank of England, deregulation etc.) all of which stemmed from the innovation of the House of Rothschild. Zionism and a Greater Israel is nothing without the money to make it happen. Which is why our present tax and debt-based economic frameworks are essentially legalised systems of theft which is encouraged according to Talmudic law:

  • Whoever returns a lost article to a gentile is under the curse of God. (BT Sanhedrin 76a).
  • Property of gentiles is like the desert; whoever among the Jews gets there first, owns it. (BT Baba Bathra 54b).
  • If a gentile loses something, a Jew may keep it, even if he knows the owner. (BT Baba Kamma 113b).
  • If the majority of people in an area are gentiles, a Jew may just keep the lost article. If the majority are Jews, an effort must be made to find the owner. (BT Baba Mezia 24a).
  • A gentile must pay wages to a Jew, but a Jew does not have to pay wages to a gentile. (BT Sanhedrin 57a).
  • The gentiles are outside the protection of the law and God has “exposed their money to Israel.” (BT Baba Kamma 37b).  [20]

In the next post we will continue our look at the Babylonian Talmud with help from the late Israel Shahak.

 


Notes

[1] ‘Structure of the Talmud Files’ Caroline A Valentine, http://www.come-and-hear.com/structure.html
[2] p.47; Jews, God, and History by Max Isaac Dimont ( 1964) Signet Classics; 2nd edition (2004) ISBN-10: 0451529405
[3] Ibid; p.359.
[4] R. Travers Herford, writing for The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia, s.v. Pharisees, Volume 8, page 474, available at http://www.come-and-hear.com/uje/uje_474.html
[5] Behar DM, Thomas MG, Skorecki K et al. (October 2003). “Multiple origins of Ashkenazi Levites: Y chromosome evidence for both Near Eastern and European ancestries”. American Journal of Human Genetics 73 (4): 768–779. doi:10.1086/378506. PMC 1180600. PMID 13680527.
[6] The Pharisees: The Sociological Background of Their Faith, page xxi, available at http://www.come-and-hear.com/talmud/finkelstein.html#xxi
[7] p.14; The Controversy of Zion By Douglas Reed (1956) New edition published by Bridger House Publishers (1 Feb. 2012) ISBN-10: 0984473378.
[8] Ibid; p.15.

[9] op.cit Shahak; p.13.
[10] Ibid; p.88.
[11] Ibid.
[12] p.181; This Is My God Paperback By Herman Wouk (1961) reprint Edition published 1992 by Back Bay Books.
[13] Hebraic literature; translations from the Talmud, Midrashim and Kabbala, with special introduction by Maurice H. Harris, D.D. [Édition de luxe] 2012.
[14] collated by Brother Nathanael Kapner at http://www.realjewnews.com/?p=156
[15] Jewish History, Jewish Religion The Weight of Three Thousand Years (1994) By Israel Shahak. Pluto Press; First Edition edition (December 1, 1994) ISBN-10: 074530818X. p.75; Chapter 5, “The Laws Against Non-Jews.”

[16]  p. 658.5 / 2342; Judaism Discovered (2008) by Michael Hoffman (kindle edition)
[17]  Ibid; 684.3 / 2342
[18]  Ibid; 651.7 / 2342
[19]  Ibid; 624.0 / 2342
[20] Ibid.

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Dark Green II: Roots of Eco-Fascism

By M.K. Styllinski

Eco-fascism: “… A totalitarian government that requires individuals to sacrifice their interests to the well-being and glory of the “land”, understood as the splendid web of life, or the organic whole of nature, including peoples and their states”

– Michael E. Zimmerman, pp. 531-532 in Encyclopedia of Religion and Nature


Before looking at how environmentalism and ecological thinking operates today in some sectors of the world, we need to jump back and take a look at some of its roots.

Ecology is an interdisciplinary branch of biology exploring the relationships between living organisms and their natural environment. Even though he was not an ecologist, biologist and philosopher Ernst Haeckel coined the word “oekologie,” in 1866 from the Greek oikos meaning “house” and logos meaning “science.”  The doctrine of Vitalism has strong ties to the evolution of ecology which states that “living organisms are fundamentally different from non-living entities because they contain some non-physical element or are governed by different principles than are inanimate things” [1] It incorporates the idea of “the soul” and “Spirit” as well as the theory of “ether” that bound all living things together; the elusive fifth element in Hermetic philosophy.

This is a very old idea that can be traced back to the philosopher/surgeon Galen of Pergamon of 2nd Century Turkey. Ecology of the mind, land and social systems have tended to go hand in hand with the development of holism or “holistic thinking” so popular in complementary medicine and new science. This theory posits that parts of a whole have an intimate interconnection to each other and as such, cannot exist or be understood independently of that whole. Much work has been done on the validity of this theory that sees the biological organisation of life self-organising: “… into layers of emergent whole systems that function according to non-reducible properties.” [2] This has never been more applicable to physical and mental disease and in sharp contrast to Cartesian and reductionist theories of mind and matter.

Distinct from environmentalism (philosophy, ideology and social movement) and environmental science, ecology attempts to explain life processes and adaptations; the distribution and abundance of organisms; the movement of materials and energy through living communities and the long-term development of biodiversity in the environment.

A number of disciplines come under the umbrella of ecology including: behavioural ecology; community ecology (or synecology); ecophysiology; ecopsychology; ecosystem ecology; evolutionary ecology; global ecology; population ecology; human ecology and social ecology.

monolith Sculptures Near Amsterdam, Holland | © infrakshun

Whether ecology actually is a science is still hotly debated. The fact that it appeals to the wise and benevolent as much as the ignorant and evil is probably due to its diverse mix of disciplines. Whether physiology, evolutionary biology, genetics, or ethology, any science can be made to work for an ideology usually at the cost of truth.  When a passionate love of “pure Nature” is present all that is needed to transform that belief into a toxic time-bomb is to mix in some neo-feudalism, Marxist theory and a touch of occultism and the race is on to control the “viral” spread of humanity under the guise of healing the planet. Though Darwinism and Malthusianism had little to do with ecology, they have often sat alongside ecological thinking and the fascist/collectivist policies that slowly rose up through their ranks.

Historian Anna Bramwell’s The Fading of the Greens: Decline of Environmental Politics in the West , a mammoth trilogy on ecology and environmental activism, shows that ecologists were constantly aligned with fascist parties, fascistic philosophy, the aristocracy and Establishment.[3]   These often anti-transcendent thinkers were both pro-rural and anti-capitalist naturalists and according to Bramwell, this desire to re-discover Nature meant to learn and: “… return with the recommendation that one clings to the wheel because it is the most sensible path of action. To do so requires sweeping away past identities, past traditions and past errors.” In effect, such a personality is: “… a natural protestor.” [4]

Traditionally the seeds of fascistic thinking in ecology and environmental movements began to appear in Europe after the growth of the natural sciences in the 17th and 18th centuries and in the reaction to the exploitation of the land and communities that the Industrial Revolution eventually reconfigured, or swept away entirely. Britain’s artists such as William Blake raged against the machine of industry as “Dark Satanic Mills” with pioneers such as John Ruskin, William Morris, Edward Carpenter and Henry Williamson continuing the struggle. Americans too were equally aghast at the destruction and consequent  “desacralisation” of Nature with the likes of Ralph Waldo Emerson, Walt Whitman and Henry Thoreau offering activist wings to ecological thoughts.

This helped to give rise to the environmental movement headed by such people as Arthur Tansley who coined the term “eco-system” and Aldo Leopold who championed the cause of “land ethics” closely mirroring the Back to the Land Movement first initiated by Ruskin, though with a somewhat more scientific focus. Indeed, scientists were beginning to offer the world an ecological framework including Charles Elton’s animal ecology and food chains, along side Alexander Stuart Watt’s plant ecology. By the middle of the 20th Century, humanism and the environment were getting closer and the World State policies trumpeted by biologist Julian Huxley as head of the UN’s UNESCO agency reflected this change. Huxley’s naturalist and ethological background (the study of animals in their natural habitats) fed into his vision of humanity on a petri-dish which needed to be ordered and managed. Since the board of UNESCO saw fit to make him the Chairman, they obviously felt the same way.

In Britain, in the early part of the 20th century the growth of various environmental movements were largely in response to the economic depression which had hit farming hard after the prosperous years of the mid-19th century. The Dartington Trust founded in the 1920s to promote rural regeneration; The Garden City movement which placed a magnifying glass on town and garden design in urban areas; The Council for the Protection of Rural England and The Ramblers Association in the 1930 concentrated on town planning and the relationship to the countryside. Landowners and farmers had to cope with falling prices, lower rents and untenanted farms. Back to the Land came into its own with The English Land Colonisation Society creating 400 farming communities. Cooperatives were formed and derelict land and run-down farms were taken over; Arts and Crafts were revived and community increased. This was something undeniably anti-industry and a healthy reversal of the “filthy tide” of industrialisation which was making the British Empire the uncontested global manager.  The money came predominantly from the wealthy and those with aristocratic connections who were intent on “preserving the countryside, controlling development and shifting the population out of big cities.” [5]

According to Bramwell’s research, ecologists were mostly conservative, monarchist and staunch traditionalists of the “green and pleasant land” mythology which derived from the same traditions as the German Romantic Movement which in turn, came from immensely deep roots in German society. This revival of the land and nature began to be part of the green social movement which meant resisting the inexorable drive of the industrialists. But there was a shadow side. This “Blood and Soil” romanticism became a powerful influence not just in Britain but across all of Europe and America.

Drawn from the Völkisch or “Völk” in German culture, it refers to ethnicity from the “Blood” as ancestral descent and the homeland or “Soil”. It places a vital importance on the notion of rural living and the place humans occupy in relation to Nature and their immediate environment. It was made more popular during the rise of the Nazi Third Reich by Richard Walther Darré a Nazi party member, race theorist and eugenics advocate. Yet the Blood and Soil sentiment had been present in pagan cults embedded in the ecological fabric of Germany and thus a potential political force deep in the psyche of Germans outside the cities. (We will come back to Darré and Germany’s influence on Eco-Fascism later on).

Literature from the 1880s – 1940s was infused with folklore, countryside mythology and a pagan sensuality of nature. D.H. Lawrence was one of  the best examples of this new ecological vision. It was through such persons that the emerging environmental and nature activists re-learned vitalism and the “God in Nature.” His wife, Frieda von Richtofen, introduced Lawrence to an artist colony which had a: “… distinctive German brand of serious nature-worship and sun-worship”. This seems to have been a significant influence in his art and according to Bramwell: “appears to resemble the language of the proto-Nazis.”[6] Whether or not that is true, the link between English and German fascism and the art of the European intelligentsia  was very strong indeed.

19th century author and poet Ernst Moritz Arndt and journalist and novelist Wilhelm Heinrich Riehl seemed to personify the eco-fascism of the pre-war period in Germany. Arndt seemed to write beautifully and movingly about the plight of Nature under the Industrial Revolution and the importance of ecological awareness, yet he seemed to despise human beings. He was anti-French, anti-Slav, anti-Semitic and xenophobic, placing German land and people at the forefront of perfection. Riehl learned from his teacher Arndt but differed in focus. The same nationalism and anti-Semitism was present but he leaned towards an early version of environmental activism in which he advocated a fight for “the rights of wilderness.” This was to be for the well-being of the German people alone, however.

Blut und Boden / “Blood and Soil” propaganda card.

The Völkisch movement welcomed them with open arms and as humanist writer Peter Staudenmaier comments: “… it pointedly refused to locate the sources of alienation, rootlessness and environmental destruction in social structures, laying the blame instead to rationalism, cosmopolitanism, and urban civilization. The stand-in for all of these was the age-old object of peasant hatred and middle-class resentment: the Jews.” [7]

A good example of the latent fascism residing in aristocracy and the Establishment was charismatically expressed through politician Sir Oswald Ernald Mosley, 6th Baronet, of Ancoats, who founded the BUF. On 11 May 1920 he married Lady Cynthia Curzon second daughter of George Curzon, Lord Curzon of Kedleston and married his mistress in 1933 in Germany on 6 October 1936, in the Berlin home of Nazi propaganda chief Joseph Goebbels. Adolf Hitler was one of the guests.

Mosley was a distinguished orator and and one of the youngest MPs to be elected to represent his constituency of Harrow in 1918. He began as a conservative then joined the Labour Party by 1924 immediately changed his allegiance to the Independent Labour Party (ILP). Mosley and his wife Cynthia were committed Fabians right up to the start of the 1930s. [8] When Labour won the 1929 general election he was appointed to the post of Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster. However, his presence in government was to be short-lived. Mosley put forward a whole scheme in the ‘Mosley Memorandum’ only to find it soundly rejected, despite the fact it preceded much of the socialist policy in the intervening years. [9]

After resigning from the cabinet in 1930 he founded the New Party which gradually warmed to fascist policies. The momentum stalled due to the General Election the following year so Mosley took the opportunity to take a tour of Mussolini’s Italy which finalised his desire to pursue overtly fascist politics back in the UK. So, the British Union of Fascists was born. His corps of black-uniformed paramilitary stewards, or “blackshirts” was constantly in the news for being involved in violent confrontations between Communist or Jewish groups which would eventually lead to the downfall of Mosley’s party. When the government passed the Public Order Act 1936 which came into into effect the following year, it marked the end for his para-military brigade.

Rather ironically, Mosley embarked on a peace campaign throughout the war and was finally interned on May 1940 along with his wife Diana Mitford and other active fascists in the grounds of Holloway prison. After the War the baron rejoined active politics and formed the Union Movement, calling for a European Super-State covering the continent of Europe (known as Europe a Nation), and later attempted to launch a National Party of Europe to this end. This time his fascism was expressed through Synarchy.

At his core, Mosley had a genuine desire to better peoples’ lives, but his powerful drive was also technocratic in that he had a precise understanding of the bureaucratic and economic machinery of his day. [10]His socialism was based on re-imagining the state towards a greater British Empire that moved into Europe and further colonised Africa as “the breadbasket for the West.”sup>[11] Thus he had a lot in common with the likes of Cecil Rhodes and his later Round Table compatriots and would be very influential for authoritarian personalities who embraced fascism in the future. Though overt environmental sympathies were missing in Mosley’s political ambitions his supporters made up for it. In fact, there have been a raft of individuals rather than groups who have both a history of environmentalist views being held by the far-right in the UK.

Oswald-Mosley-image

Sir Oswald Mosely and Diana circa 1936

Jorian Jenks was a farmer, environmentalist and political activist, serving as Mosley’s agricultural advisor in the BUF. He was “one of the most dominant figures in the development of the organic movement” [12]and yet another of the fascists who found themselves detained by the government in 1940, this time at Walton Prison and released a year later. It was after the war that Jenks moved “…  from politics to ‘meta-politics’ evolving a more spiritual ‘spiritual ecologism’ which would address the cause of national disintegration and replenish the bond between man and soil.” [13]

Niece of Lord Arthur Balfour of the Balfour declaration fame, and English farmer and organic farming pioneer, the visionary Lady Eve Balfour and her Soil Association provided Jenks with an outlet to pursue the science and practice of organic farming. He served as editorial secretary and published the association’s journal Mother Earth through which his eco-fascist views could be heard much to the delight (or consternation) of those reading the material. He stated: “An anti-modernist philosophy embracing land reform the paramountcy of agriculture; the subordination of mechanisation to organicism; the localisation of economies and the cultivation of the consciousness of the ties of blood and soil.” Jenks saw the Soil Association policy as “pure Aryan”… “though they don’t make a point of it.” [14]

Despite Jenk’s clear fascism his contribution to agricultural policy and the scientific experiments exploring the differences between organic and non-organic foods were extremely influential, as were his warnings on the dangers of chemical fertilisers and pesticides. He found his way to the Soil Association via Kinship in Husbandry which he had joined in 1942. This group had been founded by Rolf Gardiner with support from H. J. Massingham and Lord Lymington. It was essentially a platform for eco-fascist principles which had bubbled up into the Soil Association to the extent that Gardiner became co-founder; such was his passion for the future of organic farming. He was also an avid English folk dancer, naturist  and active in far right politics. Gardiner’s passion for English folk dancing helped to revive the Morris dance which was inflicted on Germany and the emerging Hitler Youth of the time. Despite the homoerotic overtones he insisted this was a thoroughly masculine and virile ritual of pagan nature worship. (The latter was part of the Third Reich’s inspirations, though it remains to be seen if they were impressed by the Morris dancing…)

dh-lawrence[1]

D.H. Lawrence

A one-time Kibbo Kift member as a Cambridge University student Gardiner had also greatly admired D.H. Lawrence  whom he visited in 1928 while in Switzerland. Their teacher-student relationship blossomed into a long lasting friendship that was based on:

“… a shared faith in the organic which was by no means confined to their descriptions of the landscape or nature. By seeking organic solutions to the problems of contemporary life – emphasising the important of ‘natural’ hierarchies, for instance, or the ‘rootedness’ of culture in the native soil, or the ties that bind language, culture and racial destiny – Lawrence and Gardiner found themselves drawing from the same wellspring which nourished Völkisch and fascist movements. Indeed in 1953, Bertrand Russell famously wrote that Lawrence’s views led straight to Auschwitz.”  [15]

Although highly ironic coming from Mr. Russell who was hoisted on the same humanist-Fabian pole, the above passage sums up perfectly the problem of the naturalists and those sensitive to the destruction of Nature who may in some instances also harbour authoritarian traits: they inevitably gravitated towards the rich history of the Völkisch and the New Order proposed by National Socialism. It was both a product of the times and a trigger which seemed to draw out the latent fascism waiting to leak from otherwise natural and healthy principles.

Writer, naturalist and farmer Henry Williamson who wrote Tarka the Otter (1927) and many other classics, supported the BUF and was greatly impressed after visiting the National Socialist Congress in 1935. (We don’t know what he thought of Gardiner’s Morris dancing, however). His growing fascist views, led him to be detained during World War II, like Mosley, under the Defence Regulation 18B. He contributed to the Anglo-German Review for whom “… the Anglo-German sympathizers of the period were united by a common interest in nature and ecology.” [16] The same Germanic sun-worshipping and pagan revivalism was found in his writings most particularly where the ancient light of the sun represented the real meaning of his own existence by illuminating his ancestral past and revealing the truth of redemption through Nature.” [17]

Like many artists of post-World War I his experiences of death and horror culminating in the Christmas truce of 1918 helped him to see Germans and the Nature worship embedded in their culture as a new light for the world. He had been seduced by the seemingly vibrant economic and cultural renaissance best symbolised by the Hitler youth with “faces that looked to be breathing extra oxygen; people free from mental fear.” Williamson was certain that National Socialism was the answer and echoed D. H Lawrence’s obsession with “blood and soil” believing that they represented: “… a race that moves on the poles of mystic, sensual delight. Every gesture is a gesture from the blood, every expression a symbolic utterance … Everything is of the blood, of the senses.” [18]

He seemed to remain a fan despite the failure of the Nazi ideal by protesting against the unjust nature of the Nuremburg trials. Although these were indeed a showpiece to cover up the fact that many of the Nazis Elite were absorbed into the American National Security State, it nevertheless showed that his sympathies remained strong. It is this paradoxical eco-fascist romanticism as sweet as syrup yet cast in molten metal that often remains impervious to any change. Just as the seeds of psychopathy have long been exposed to the right Anglo-American conditions for various strains to multiply like fungi on an otherwise healthy tree, this ecological inversion has continued from its romantic pre-war passion to much more subtle expressions. Similar to eugenics, it has insinuated itself into the fabric of society with respectable sounding names, sacred philosophies and philanthropic causes. But it is essentially the same ponerisation, yearning to control human beings, now under the cover of Gaia. [19]

That is not to say that all environmentalism has at its root latent fascism, only that we need to be aware of this inversion – roots can grow in a variety of soils given the right conditions.

In 1970, the first issue of The Ecologist magazine appeared in the UK, with genuinely fascinating and productive articles. Nevertheless, its underlying theme of “humans as virus” and ecological parasites was common throughout and a direct link back to fascistic beliefs, albeit largely unconscious.  The magazine’s founder, the late Edward Goldsmith, displayed the same beliefs as Prince Philip Duke of Edinburgh, in that humanity was a disease which had to be halted. Like so many who seemed to have authoritarian tendencies he displayed a frequent wish to control and micro-manage the lives of others. Government, in Goldsmith view should mimic his own patriarchal leanings and become a “schoolmaster” to “an ever more demanding and self-indulgent electorate.” In other words, we all needed to be horse-whipped into submission so that we may break free from our wicked ways. Indeed, Goldsmith went further, suggesting  that: “… radical change in our way of looking at man’s relationship with his environment, … must involve taking measures that in many cases are contrary to our accepted values. Thus, to control population we may have to interfere with ‘personal liberty’, while to reduce economic expansion we are forced to curb ‘the march of ‘progress.’” [20]

It is hear that we come to the crux of the problem with such thinking since it perfectly aligns with elite beliefs that demand populations are suppressed and managed in much the same way as Nature has been through the centuries.  The dividing line between co-creating with the planet and bending it to our will is blurred. The wild sanctity and purity of the biosphere is set against the population who are despoilers and viri – a disease to cut out so that Nature may reign once more. The problem is clear. Such binary thinking can very easily mixed up with good intentions leading catastrophic results as we have seen time and time again. The only disease is that of ponerological strains within humanity whose job it is to subvert and invert.  Ideologies born from socio-economic distress and spiritual vacuity are blended in the minds of authoritarians and their followers and grafted onto passions and beliefs which would have otherwise remained connected to a benign and rejuvenating force.

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© infrakshun

Germany also had a pronounced tradition of controlling Nature. For over 250 years it had radically drained mash and fenlands, exploited vast tracts of Bavarian moorland, managed rivers and built dams in high valleys. The impact of hydrological dams after the 1750s was enormous, changing the face of the German landscape. Where once there was fear of the vast tracts of wilderness, for some they became the new source of romanticism, especially when they began to disappear. This was paradoxical and as historian David Blackbourne asks: “Why did the pace of moorland drainage and colonization increase after the First World War? Because Germans began to see themselves after the Treaty of Versailles as a ‘people without space,’ a Völkohne Raum, so that every cultivated acre counted.” [21]

The Conquest of the Europe meant the conquest of nature which seemed to run counter to the ecological ethos that Nazism promoted. Historians Groninga and Joachim Wolscheke-Bulmanha wrote in an article in Planning Perspectives journal of 1987: “… to explain the destruction of the countryside and environmental damage, without questioning the German people’s bond to nature, could only be done by not analysing environmental damage in a societal context and by refusing to understand them as an expression of conflicting social interests. Had this been done, it would have led to criticism of National Socialism itself since that was not immune to such forces.” [22]

Though it was not to be.

At the same time technocratic and authoritarian, in order for Nature to be returned to the romantic myth of Germanic perfection the space had be created for the German people as guardians and worshippers of Nature so that the former Edenic state could return. Once cleansed of “weeds” and the uniformity of human design the superiority of the Aryan race could stand at the head of a New World Order which would necessarily mean harmony between land and people, inseparable in the National Socialist mind.

The man who had most power in the Reich second to Hitler was probably SS Field Marshall Heinrich Himmler who epitomised classic eco-fascist ideology when he mused:

“The peasant of our racial stock has always carefully endeavoured to increase the natural powers of the soil, plants, and animals, and to preserve the balance of the whole of nature. For him, respect for divine creation is the measure of all culture. If, therefore, the new Lebensräume (living spaces) are to become a homeland for our settlers, the planned arrangement of the landscape to keep it close to nature is a decisive prerequisite. It is one of the bases for fortifying the German Völk.” [23]

The adaptation of biological concepts to social systems tied up with romantic verbiage led to the strategic importance of environmental resources. This was the official policy of Lebensräume or “Living space”. Expansionist politics would mean that the Balkans would be chosen as the provider and coincide with the extermination of the Slavic races, which they deemed inferior. As Hitler stated: “Every healthy Völk sees the right to expansion of its living space as something natural.” [24]

Land, conquest and ethnic cleansing became inextricably linked with a spiritual mission.

By the time Ernst Haeckel had invented the term “ecology” there was the appearance at least, of a “… scientifically based ecological holism with Völkisch social views,” which consisted of a potent mixture of “… nineteenth century cultural prejudices, romantic obsessions with purity [and] anti-Enlightenment sentiment,” fused with “aggressive nationalism, mystically charged racism, and environmentalist predilections.” [25]Haeckel was also responsible for merging Social Darwinism and ecology into his own philosophy of “Monism” which provided an outlet and scientific cover for his belief in Nordic racial superiority. The Third Reich’s obsession with the occult was in large part due to the Germanic nature worship and which had given rise to revivalism and green politics in the intelligentsia. This was reflected in Haeckel’s decision to join the Thule Gesellschaft or Thule Society founded by Bavarian occultist and freemason Baron Rudolf von Sebottendorff an instrumental in the formation of the Nazi Party. [26] The Society was the organisation that sponsored the Deutsche Arbeiterpartei (DAP), later reorganized by Adolf Hitler into the National Socialist German Workers’ Party (NSDAP or Nazi Party).

The Youth movement of the Weimar Republic or the Wandervögel (‘wandering free spirits’) was a fusion of almost every type of transcendent, occult and folklore ideology that was available. Reason and rational discourse were rejected. It was effectively a nature cult elevating peasantry to mythical status joined with the authoritarian impetus of the State which was needed to show people the way. Peter Staudenmaier believes this heralded an important: “… shift from nature worship to Führer worship,” where National Socialism’s adoption of environmentalist themes of nationalism and sacred naturalism “… was a crucial factor in its rise to popularity and state of power.” [27]

The foundation of these beliefs was made concrete through two levels of ecological support within the core of the Third Reich. These were at the ministerial and planning and administrative levels, evidence of which can be found in the archives of the Reich. Agrarian romanticism and anti-urbanism was dominant and central in Nazi ideology so that most of the leading members were ecologically aware or had some overlapping naturist belief. 60 percent of the membership rolls of several Naturschutz (nature protection) organizations during the Weimar era had joined the National Socialist Party in 1939. [28]

Gleichklang Alfred Bernert‘Gleichklang’ by Alfred Bernert

Hitler as a vegetarian and an animal lover was a believer in the Völk and the value of Nature but he was also a pragmatic strategist. However, three other notable players close to Hitler represented various shades of dark green belief within the Third Reich.  His deputy, Rudolf Hess, was an enthusiastic fervent devotee of naturism, anthroposophy and homeopathy. Working for Hesse were leading ecologists who produced draft reports on the necessity for “organic, ecologically sound land use and planning.” Hess’s top land planning officer called soil: “… the foundation of the formation of the community”.[29]

Hermann Göering was a nature conservationist, animal husbandrist and the Reich’s Chief Huntsman. He favoured the forest over the rights of the farmers and their fields. He organised many International Hunting Exhibitions for the wealthy. Hitler once referred to these groups as “the green Freemasonry”. As Air Force commander he discontinued the use of animals to test weapons and used people instead. [30]

Reichsführer-SS Heinrich Himmler had a degree in agriculture, was a farmer, an occultist and neo-pagan. Power over the concentration camps, death squads and the liquidation of the Jews and other minorities lay at his door. And he, like Hitler, valued animals over people, being responsible for the Third Reich’s anti-vivisection legislation which was the first law of its kind. While Hitler soared into the mysticism of the Völk, Himmler’s beliefs veered towards theosophy, anthroposophy, astrology, Wicca, herbalism, organicism, astrology and homeopathy. He was the first true New Age Nazi with power at his hands, his interests of which inspired him to follow in Blavatsky’s footsteps by sending an SS team to Tibet in 1938 led by zoologist Ernst Schäfer, officially to conduct anthropological experiments, unofficially to open a dialogue between Tibetan Monks of Agharti which were following the “Black arts.” [31] (See: The Light Bringer)

With the infiltration of the Agriculture Ministry and National Food Estate by the SS under Himmler’s say so. When East Europe would be conquered and ethnically cleansed of undesirables a new race of farmers would be deposited on the land and given free farms, provided they passed the eugenics check list set up by the newly created Racial Office was created within the SS. [32]

Therefore three main green beliefs were personified within the Reich: The Aristocratic-freemasonic eco-conservativism of Göering; the folklore, anthroposophy and organicism of Hesse and the occult-neo-pagan beliefs of Himmler.

By 1937 Poland was under Himmler’s settlement program using state funds and seized land while Race and Settlement officers were busy searching for “… farms that could be farmed organically”. After all, it was only SS farmers who could understand “…the superiority of organic farming methods as opposed to artificial fertilisers”. And Chemical fertilizers were criminalised under Himmler’s land planning laws. [33] The SS-owned Institute for the Study of Medicinal and Alimentary Plants, (ISMAP) was an SS owned research organisation where German scientists, physicians, botanists, and chemists conducted research into medicinal properties of plants and many other agrarian experiments. An experimental farm called “Plantage” was based in the surrounding fields of the Dachau death camp and was the brainchild of Himmler but operated by ISMAP.

Marcus J. Smith, a US military doctor who was assigned to Dachau after it was liberated, was told by the former inmates that:

“… many ambitious projects were undertaken, such as the production of artificial pepper, the evaluation of seasoning mixtures, the extraction of Vitamin C from gladioli and other flowers, the potentiation of plant growth by hormone-enriched manure, and of most importance to Germany, the development of synthetic fertilizer. As a profitable side-line, garlic, malva, and other medicinal plants, and vegetable seeds, were cultivated by the prisoners and then sold; the profits went to the SS.” [34]

Other experimental farms were set up at Auschwitz concentration camp and Mauthausen concentration camps in Austria where experiments were conducted by the SS on different kinds of diets including “famine experiments” on Russian POWs. [35]

In 1935, Himmler, founded the Nazi think-tank Ahnenerbe to “study society for Intellectual Ancient History.” The goal was to find confirmation of the myths and philosophies relating to the Aryan race and Nordic populations from an anthropological and cultural perspective. With Himmler’s fascination with the Catharism, Norse mythology and the Knights Templars it led him to expend time and money attempting to uncover many of the alleged secrets behind the legends of the Holy Grail. Indeed, many voyages to a variety of destinations across the globe were carried out and funded by the SS. Among a handful of founding members included SS-Obergruppenführer Richard Walther Darré, Reich Minister of Food and Agriculture, animal breeder and one of the leading promoters of Nazi “blood and soil” ideology.

As a young man Darré was another Völkisch acolyte who joined the Artaman League, the same back-to-the-land movement of which Himmler was a member. This eventually led him to concoct the theory that the future of the Nordic race was deeply connected to soil and which subsequently led to “Blut and Boden” or the “Blood and Soil” meme. According to Nazi ideology, while the relationship to the environment over time becomes embedded in the consciousness of the dweller and vice versa, Germans, due to their Nordic ancestry had a peculiar, almost mystical connection to the land. German soil was sacred, in direct opposition to the “wandering Jew.” Nordicism or “Nordic Theory” claims that a Nordic race, within the greater Caucasian race constituted a master race, and it is this ethnic purity that Darré believed could be found once again.

330px-Bundesarchiv_Bild_119-2179,_Walter_Richard_Darré

Richard Walther Darré, Reich Reichsminister of Food. “The unity of blood and soil must be restored” (photo: wikipedia)

“The unity of blood and soil must be restored” was a phrase that resonated throughout the Gothic halls of the Reich and came from Darré’s 1930 book called Neuadel aus Blut und Boden (A New Nobility Based On Blood And Soil) describing a systemic eugenics program partnered with careful environmental awareness which would clear up the problem of racial impurity and return Germany to its glorious ancient past. With a keen interest and training in farming, animal husbandry and breeding Darré merely adapted his knowledge into the human world and injected it with the usual racist ideology. Geo-political conquest was justified through: “The concept of Blood and Soil [which] gives us the moral right to take back as much land in the East as is necessary to establish a harmony between the body of our Völk and the geopolitical space.” [36]

He was also a fan of the theosophical offshoot of Anthroposophy established by Rudolf Steiner despite National Socialist ideologues being hostile to the movement. Unfortunately for Darré, anthroposophy considered “Blood, Race and Folk” as primitive instincts that must be overcome. [37] Clearly, this short-coming was not enough to quash his enthusiasm for anthroposophical principles with its emphasis on Nature, art, medicine and biodynamic agriculture all based on the theory that there is an unseen spiritual world comprising a variety of “subtle realms.” As bio-dynamic farming involved a holistic view of organic agriculture the rejection of chemical fertilisers and insecticides and by extension, the trappings of industrial capitalism it was tailor-made to elevate the mythical status of the German peasant and therefore be absorbed into Nazi ideology. Racial health and ecological sustainability would be assured. Darré even “… commissioned a top anthroposophist to start a bio-dynamic farm at Marienhole. [East Germany] The farm’s journal, Demeter, had the motto: “Health through Natural Living – Harmony between Blood, Soil and Cosmos.” [38]

The anthroposophist in question, Dr. Edhart Bartsch and his biodynamic farm was run by the research group “The Imperial Association for Biodynamic Agriculture” and was closely followed by Darré and another anthroposophical convert Rudolf Hess both of whom had substantial success in pioneering bio-dynamic principles and products. However, as anthroposophy was not following Nazi principles it was all wound up by 1941. [39] The large-scale organic farming methods and ecologically sound farming practices which Darré pioneered are still in evidence in Germany and much of Europe today.

It seems eco-fascism in Nazi ideology, while no means embraced by all, (Goebbels, Boorman, Speer) was nevertheless crucial in the implementation of Nazi designs. By using potent myths and archetypes of Nature and race which had particular appeal in the German psyche these acted as part of the moral imperative to save not just the German nation but the world. It became a mystical dogma of the most virulent kind hijacked by psychopaths happy to use any and all ideologies to manifest Pathocracy. On the one hand, you had uniforms and jackboots, on the other, a symbolic return to green wellies and haystacks. Manly blond, blue-eyed Supermen working in the fields in manly union; the conservation of nature and animal husbandry on the one hand and on the other: the systematic destruction of land and people if they did not conform. It was a mass psychosis predicated on preference for ideals which have very little to do with objective reality. These are the same influences at work today the only difference being that they are more subtle and sophisticated in their manifestations.

The ideological marriage between National Socialism, nature conservation, ecology and green issues is a cast iron one. Fascism goes hand in hand with green issues and as such we need to be more prudent when those issues become politicised by any one organisation or grouping. The Nazis were a huge, technicolor warning to that end.

Once you had a confluence of Social Darwinism, politics, a green culture and occult ideology which busily distorted an otherwise healthy attention to nature then it is inevitable that it would continue to be used as a pretext for many other directives for social control. “The Natural Order” would be synonymous with a “New World Order” where “scientific technique” of race-biology would force man into their “natural” roles. Or, in the words of the National Socialist Teachers Association: “National Socialism is politically applied biology.”  [40]

 


Notes

[1] Vitalism. In E. Craig (Ed.), William Bechtel and Robert C. Richardson, Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy. London: Routledge, 1998 | http://www.mechanism.ucsd.edu/teaching/philbio/vitalism.htm
[2] Liu, J.; Dietz, Thomas; Carpenter, Stephen R.; Folke, Carl; Alberti, Marina; Redman, Charles L.; Schneider, Stephen H.; Ostrom, Elinor et al. (2009). “Coupled human and natural systems”. AMBIO: A Journal of the Human Environment 36.
[3] Blood and Soil, Richard Walter Darre and Hitler’s ‘Green Party’, Published by Kensall Press, Buckinghamshire, 1985 | Ecology in the 20th Century, A History, Yale University Press, New Haven, 1989 | The Fading of the Greens, Yale University Press, New Haven, 1994 | All by Anna Bramwell.
[4] Ibid.
[5] Ibid.
[6] Ibid.
[7] ‘Fascist Ecology: The ‘Green Wing’ of the Nazi Party and its Historical Antecedents’ By Peter Staudenmaier taken from Eco-Fascism: Lessons from the German Experience. By Janet Beihl and Peter Staudenmaier. 1995. Published by AK Press. | ISBN 1-873176 73 2. | http://www.spunk.org/texts/places/germany/sp001630/peter.html
[8] Mosley’s name can be seen in a list of Fabians from Fabian News and Fabian Society Annual Report 1929–31.
[9] p.44; Mosley By Nigel Jones, Published by Lite & Times Haus Publishing, 2004 | ISBN-10: 1904341098
[10] Sir Oswald Mosley and the British Union of Fascists by Robert Edwards, Published by League Enterprises, 2002. (introduction) | http://www.oswaldmosley.net/rome-revisited-1933.php
[11] p.64; Very Deeply Dyed in Black: Sir Oswald Mosley by Graham Macklin, Published by I.B.Tauris, 2007. | ISBN-10: 1845112849
[12] R. More-Collyer, ‘Towards “Mother Earth”: Jorian Jenks, Organicism, the Right and the British Union of Fascists’, Journal of Contemporary History, 2004, (p.39)
[13] op. cit. Macklin (p.64)
[14] Ibid. (p.65)
[15] p.6; Rolf Gardiner: Folk, Nature and Culture in In Interwar Britain by Matthew Jefferies, Mike Tyldesley2011 | ISBN-10: 1409412040
[16] op. cit. Bramwell, Ecology, (p. 173-4)
[17] ‘Henry Williamson: Nature’s Visionary’ by Mark Deavin, National Vanguard Magazine, Number 117 March-April 1997.
[18] Ibid.
[19] “The Gaia theory was developed in the late 1960’s by Dr. James Lovelock, a British Scientist and inventor, shortly after his work with NASA in determining that there was probably no life on Mars. The theory gained an early supporter in Lynn Margulis, a microbiologist at the University of Massachusetts. […] “The Gaia Theory posits that the organic and inorganic components of Planet Earth have evolved together as a single living, self-regulating system. It suggests that this living system has automatically controlled global temperature, atmospheric content, ocean salinity, and other factors, that maintains its own habitability. In a phrase, “life maintains conditions suitable for its own survival.” In this respect, the living system of Earth can be thought of analogous to the workings of any individual organism that regulates body temperature, blood salinity, etc. So, for instance, even though the luminosity of the sun – the Earth’s heat source – has increased by about 30 percent since life began almost four billion years ago, the living system has reacted as a whole to maintain temperatures at levels suitable for life.”- http://www.gaiatheory.org/synopsis.htm
[20] ‘Living with Nature’ by Edward Goldsmith, The Ecologist July 1, 1970 (www.edwardgoldsmith.org/)
[21] p.5; The Conquest Of Nature: Water, Landscape, and the Making of Modern Germany, by David Blackbourn, Published by Pimlico, 2007 | ISBN-10: 0712667261
[22] ‘Politics, planning and the protection of nature: Political abuse of early ecological ideas in Germany, 1933–45’ by Gert Gröninga & Joachim Wolschke‐Bulmahna Planning Perspectives Volume 2, Issue 2, 1987.
[23] Peter Staudenmaier Quoting from Heinz Haushofer, Ideengeschichte der Agrarwirtschaft und Agrarpolitik im deutschen Sprachgebiet, Band II, München, 1958, (p. 266).
[24] Hitler Speech, Völkischer Beobachter, 11 November 1931.
[25] Ibid.
[26] Ibid.
[27] op.cit; Staudenmaier.
[28] p.107;The Environmental Movement in Germany: Prophets and Pioneers, 1871–1971 by Raymond H. Dominick III Indiana University Press, 1992.
[29] op.cit. Bramwell; Ecology (p. 197-8)
[30] pp 182-190; Goring, a Biography, by David Irving. Published William Morrow and Co., New York, 1989.
[31] Himmler’s Crusade: The True Story of the 1938 Nazi Expedition into Tibet.by Christopher Hale, London: Transworld Publishers | ISBN 0-593-04952-7.
[32] op. cit. Bramwell, Blood and Soil (p. 132-8)
[33] op. cit. Bramwell, Ecology, (p. 202-4) | 0p. cit. Bramwell, Blood and Soil (p.132-38)
[34] ‘Work in the Dachau camp’ http://www.scrapbookpages.com
[35] ‘Using Science For The Greater Evil,’ Newsweek, Dec 1, 2003.
[36] op. cit. Janet Biehl, Peter Staudenmaier (p.19).
[37] Report of the SD-Hauptamtes Berlin: “Anthroposophy”, May 1936, BAD Z/B I 90.
[38] op. cit. Bramwell, Blood, (p. 203).
[39] http://www.demeter.net/ | “Biodynamic Agriculture: The Journey from Koberwitz to the World, 1924-1938”, By John Paul, Journal of Organic Systems, 2011, 6(1):27-41.
[40] Hans Schemm, Founder and Head of the National Socialist Teachers Association from Ernst Haeckel’s The History of Creation. 2 vols. (New York: D. Appleton, 1876), vol. I, p. 11.