“Not every story has a happy ending, … but the discoveries of science, the teachings of the heart, and the revelations of the soul all assure us that no human being is ever beyond redemption. The possibility of renewal exists so long as life exists. How to support that possibility in others and in ourselves is the ultimate question.”
Reading time: 15 mins
The Body as Barometer of Psychological states
If you are one of those who wish to reduce the amount of baggage your are carrying around then we have to address the feelings which have been locked away for so long. You had your reasons no doubt. We all have to function in life: get through college/university; work nights; support our partner, and/or children and innumerable pressures and responsibilities. Eventually suppressed memories, if allowed to languish in the unconscious, cause all kinds of havoc over time. The only route to expression these shadows are permitted is through a slow titration of toxic influence which affects the mind causing psychological problems such as anxiety, depression, post-traumatic stress disorder or dissociative disorders. However, it is the body which accumulates this psychic toxicity over many years and which manifests as specific auto-immune diseases. This is logical and common sense.
As physician and author Dr. Gabor Maté tells us: “If emotional patterns are a response to the psychological and social environment, disease in an individual always tells us about the multigenerational family of origin and the broader culture in which that person’s life unfolds.” Which is why it is so important to discover not only your possible genetic heritage but what bio-psychosocial predispositions have been passed down the line prior to your own childhood. How have the psychic echos from your ancestors and your own suppressed negative emotions melded to form who you are today?
“The effects of trauma become multigenerational through repeated psychological dysfunctions. The new science of epigenetics is identifying the mechanisms that even affect gene functioning. The children of Holocaust survivors, for example, have altered genetic mechanisms leading to abnormal stress hormone levels. Animal studies are showing that the physiological effects of trauma can be passed on even to the third generation.” 
Maté explains further:
“The pathway from stressful emotions, often unconscious, to physical disease was often driven home to me as a family physician and palliative care practitioner, although nothing in my medical education even remotely hinted at such links. People I saw with chronic disease of all kinds—from malignancies or autoimmune conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis or ulcerative colitis to persistent skin conditions such as eczema and psoriasis, and neurological disorders like Lou Gehrig’s Disease (ALS), multiple sclerosis, Parkinson’s, and even dementia—were characterized by certain unmistakable emotional life patterns. Among these was the chronic repression of so-called negative emotions, especially of healthy anger, … an overriding sense of duty, role, and responsibility; an undue concern for the emotional needs of others while ignoring one’s own; and, finally, a core belief—again, often unconscious—that one is responsible for how other people feel and that one must never disappoint others. The expression “the good die young” has—sadly—more validity than we sometimes appreciate.” 
Since the brain is directly connected to the immune system it makes logical sense to posit that there is an intimate relationship to the correct functioning of both. And since negative thoughts and emotions represent a different energetic frequency than more positive ones, they can naturally begin to affect whatever area of the body – such toxic memories stored. Repressed emotions over the long-term have a deleterious effect on the body’s organs, hormonal apparatus and nervous and immune systems. Deep-seated anger, shame, fear and the constant flood of stress chemicals can literally cause chronic or acute illness as a result of the immune system breaking down. This is when emotional shadows break free and express their toxicity in the body, rather than being safely exorcised through therapy. This is particularly true for all manner of addictions, which helps to calm the horrible truth in the short-term but makes things much worse as denied emotions are replaced with self-medication through substance abuse or toxic relationships.
For Dr. Maté, there’s no such thing as “addiction as a disease” or any validity behind the much used term: “addictive personality”. The origin of the problem he believes, comes from the inability to solve a deep-rooted problem sourced from trauma or loss in childhood.
Are you one of those “nice” people who cannot stop assisting others and running your altruistic tank dry? Childhood coping mechanisms and the adaptation to a dysfunctional culture is key in the manifestation of mind-body disease. The result being, we mistake those influences as the real self. Yet, an awareness of this fact may be the first step toward forms of preventative medicine. Common symptoms of psychosomatic or displaced negative emotion manifesting in the body include:
1 – Headaches and Migraines– suppressed stress and absorbing influences of others.
2 – Neck and Shoulder Pain– taking on too much; suppressed ability to communicate; dysfunctional breathing and inability to let go.
3 – Back Pain– a very common symptom of blocked emotions and a lack of emotional support. This is also related to the parallel energy system of centres/chakras which include the sacral and root centres of one’s being. The sacral chakra governs emotions, sexuality and feelings while the root chakra is about stability, security and groundedness. Each of these can be over or under active and exhibit dysfunction in the body and mind accordingly. Hence back pain may manifest this imbalance habitually
4 – Abdominal Pain
A chaotic digestive system and imbalance in the gut flora can affect our overall health in dramatic ways. Such imbalance in the stomach can produce and be a symptom of depression, anxiety, stress and anger. It suggests an inability to cope with a situation or persons in the present/past. Fear, dread and trauma can produce a highly acidic gut making it prone to ulcers and Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS).
5 – Menstrual Pain
Natural pain each month is inevitable for women, but this may be affected by unprocessed emotions developing into something much worse.
6 – Pain in Extremities
Pain or stiffness in the body might indicate a general inflexibility in our behaviour or an inability to adapt to change in the present or as an echo of the past. Avoidance of the shadow elements in our psyche which need releasing can manifest as “poisonous” fluids in the joints and a build up of crystals. A brittle rigidity in the face of change or an inability to deal with the oppression of one’s freedom may be one of the sources of these symptoms.
7 – Fibromyalgia
Mysterious but incapacitating conditions like this one may manifest as a defensive tool / focus to keep our minds occupied so that we do not have to dig into the chronic emotional repression or imbalance. When this happens, the nervous system functions in a heightened state of defense. When the body is on perpetual “fight-or-flight” mode and in a hypersensitive soup of chemically charged responses the whole endocrine, nervous and parasympathetic systems will gradually breakdown. This often occurs seemingly “out-of-the-blue” because the psycho-immunological history has not been taken into account.
Obviously, the science of epigenetics has a complex relationship to the development of disease. To reiterate: the debate between nature vs nurture may be put to rest: influences arise from both. If for instance, a child is born into an intensely stressful environment and there is a genetic predisposition toward a particular auto-immune disease those genes are “switched” on or off according to the interplay between the quality of one’s environment and social influence (nurture) and the impact of evolutionary biology and genetic inheritance (nature). Both of these influences however, can be altered. We need to jettison genetic determinism in disease as quickly as we can since it also affects the way we heal and process illness of every kind.
The Vagus Nerve and Polyvagal Theory
This brings us to Dr. Stephen Porges and his ground-breaking work on the vagus nerve, an important aspect to understand in relation the healing process. The vagus nerve has an enormous input into almost everything our body and our mind experiences. In fact, everything we think, feel and do affects this vital nerve. It is the core principle behind Porges’ Polyvagal Theory which identifies brain structures that regulate our bodily organs and provides the neuroscience foundation for mind-body science and practice.
The vagus is a cranial nerve which runs from the brain to the abdomen and has an intimate relationship with the correct functioning of the heart, lungs, and digestive tract. The vagus nerve has a major part to play in relation to these organs and the parasympathetic nervous system and therefore, how we interface with reality and life experience. The correct functioning of the vagus nerve in conjunction with physiological responses, offers major insights into mental and physical health.
The Polyvagal Theory’s focus is on the nervous system response to stress or danger which has three hierarchical systems:
- A “safe” zone – where there is no immediate threat and is supported by the ventral vagal complex, an area in the brainstem regulating the heart and the striated muscles of the face and head.
- Fight-or-flight: the interpretation of a threat which activates stress hormones and the defence of said threat by the sympathetic nervous system.
- Complete immobilization/paralysis: When we “freeze” in the face of overwhelming stress or trauma which leads to PTSD symptoms. This reaction is mediated by a motor pathway in the vagus nerve originating in the brainstem nucleus or the dorsal nucleus of the vagus.
So, when our minds and bodies are used to living in an unhealthy way and we are saturated with stress long-term it means the nervous system is pulled out of shape by being in a state of constant defence which then causes major changes to the mind and body as a result. Taking the nervous system out of this defence posture and regulating its performance back to natural and optimum levels is one of the keys to maintaining health and healing. This takes us back to Gabor Mate’s work on auto-immune diseases emerging in those who suppress and deny the shadow side of emotional stress and trauma. Since the nervous system is connected to the gut “the seat of emotions” and the right functioning of the endocrine system, we can begin to see how the vagus nerve and the body’s self-regulation can be shut down if not given the opportunity or space to heal itself.
Porges gives us some key points to consider when learning to listen to the body and “reset” the nervous system and to cultivate what he calls “a healthy vagal tone”:
- Extend the Duration of Your Exhale – (See Meditation)
- Sing and Listen to Music with Other People – promotes relaxation and social interaction, calms the nervous system
- Stand Up and Bring Awareness to Your Posture – promotes groundedness, correct breathing and alleviates body rigidity
- Really Listen to Your Body – Being mindful of the body state. What is the body telling you? 
You can find more vagus nerve exercises here.
Dr. Kelly Brogan is another of a doctor on the cutting-edge of integrative approaches to medicine. In a recent article she lists three gamechangers in recent scientific research currently causing a paradigm shift: the microbiome as beneficial bacteria in the intestine, viral-type exosomes as key facilitators of gene expression and the relationship to self-belief and the placebo effect that underlies the previous key drivers in health and wellness, healing and disease. Let’s look at what she has to say about each of these drivers:
Gamechanger # 1: The Microbiome
“we are, in fact, an ecosystem, positioned within an ecosystem. There is no linearity, so that when we pull one thread of the spider web, the entire thing moves”
…Our bodies harbour a huge array of micro-organisms. While bacteria are the biggest players, we also host single-celled organisms known as archaea, as well as fungi, viruses and other microbes – including viruses that attack bacteria. Together these are dubbed the human microbiota. Your body’s microbiome is all the genes your microbiota contains, however colloquially the two terms are often used interchangeably. When it comes to obesity, there are several ways gut microbes might influence matters, including through appetite, production of gases, efficiency of using food, and impact on the immune system and inflammation. When it comes to affecting mood, there are also several mechanisms. One is via the vagus nerve, [see above] a two-way highway that runs from our brain to various organs in the body, including the gut.
With the emergence of science seeking to study the microbiome, primarily in the gut, we have learned that these bacteria have the capacity to perform some of our most vital human functions, and some that seem to be eerily custodial. Take for example, the fact that there are bacteria in our guts that have evolved to detoxify the chemicals in an average dry cleaner. How could they possibly have foreseen the need for this function? Then there’s the digestion, barrier protection, immune signaling, hormone balancing, and brain controlling functions of the microbiome.[…]
Gamechanger #2: Exosomes
“The nail in the coffin of protein-coding-gene-determined-health is a group of tiny bubble-like blobs that influence gene expression. Amazingly similar to viruses in nature, structure, and possibly even function, exosomes are created and received by our bodily cells in order to direct, determine, and react to states of being.”
40-100nm in diameter, exosomes typically carry something called micro RNA or miRNA which are key regulators of gene expression, naturally impacted by environmental factors, from toxicants, nutrition, and lifestyle patterns. In fact, seminal research has demonstrated that stable miRNAs are transferred from plants including rice and ginger, into mammalian physiology where they then serve to regulate gene expression and communicate with bacteria. This is being called inter-kingdom crosstalk. Once again, food is reframed as so much more than calories and nutrients…it is information.
Researchers are suggesting that infant assessments of miRNA patterns may help to identify fetal brain injury from toxic exposures including mercury, aluminum, and medications, at birth, so that healing protocols can be prioritized and initiated. Powerfully, however, in order to understand the “signatures” of different disease states, we would have to study them in their natural unfoldment, without pharmaceutical interventions, before we could ascertain what is evidence of illness and what is evidence of medication effect. […]
Gamechanger #3: Belief
“My research on the placebo effect has helped me to understand that psychiatric medications, and specifically antidepressants, are more risk than benefit, and that I cannot achieve meaningful outcomes with patients who do not fundamentally believe that their bodies can heal.”
And the placebo effect is a crucial aspect in just how powerful belief can be in the self-regulation of mind and body. So, we’ll take a bit more time to focus on this aspect as it is key to the success of healing in both mental and physical illnesses.
Mental illness and the placebo effect
Thanks to psychiatry and the pharmaceutical industry there has never been a time where the burgeoning labels for of the next new mental illness and condition is so lucrative. In one sense, there is no mental illness only imbalance. There is considerable evidence that the more you identify with your assigned label of dysfunction the more you will believe that this is who you are. If we consider that so much mind-body imbalance may be the higher self’s way of letting you know that something is amiss and therefore change is needed, then it can be seen as a potentially transformative threshold – even the equivalent of a shamanic descent to the underworld to retrieve that connection to the soul. That is not to imply that any of this is in the mind or “just a dream” which would be beyond insulting. Only that mind has the ability to heal the body in ways we are only just beginning to understand. Don’t get caught in the trap that mental illness and its manifestation in the body is a one way street. Nothing is inevitable. Those we admire most triumph over adversity – seemingly against the odds. And with the right set of tools and support, there is no reason at all why you can’t triumph too. Let go of that label and have faith and trust that you can return to your natural equilibrium.
The brain for instance, turns out to be even more extraordinary organ than anyone ever realised as each new piece of neuroscientific research comes in year by year. What many studies have shown is that the brain, in concert with our epigenetic template and interactions with our environment, has the ability to heal itself – and indeed the body as a whole. The new science of brain development called neuroplasticity which means that our grey matter can be trained much like a muscle and re-trained away from habitual modes of behaviour. Our brains are not hard-wired as we once thought but rather more pliable and malleable to belief. Our thoughts can change the structure and the function of our neurology and by following certain brain exercises to increase its inherent power we can even increase the size, strength and density of the brain. Indeed, it seems our brains are actually designed to to improve as we age, counter to the prevailing wisdom that old age means an inevitable deterioration and impairment. Again, our brains are wired to adapt and our “plasticity” is testament to that fact.
Dr. Joe Dispenza’s work on the placebo effect and its relationship to the brain and our ability to heal the body is pertinent to this topic. After a life-threatening accident caused severe injuries to his spine, doctors told the young Dispenza that he likely never walk again. However, through specific visualisations, meditations and sheer will power, he managed to heal himself – completely. This led to a career as and the synthesis of the latest information in neuroendocrinology, epigenetics and the relatively new field of psychoneuroimmunology and a new concept he calls: “information to transformation.”
Dispenza’s discoveries mimic much ancient wisdom and metaphysical teachings whilst updating them neuroscience and quantum physics. In summary, he believes that the brain and body is shaped by one’s thoughts, the emotions we feel and the intentions we hold. Furthermore, states of flow or even transcendence can have a truly miraculous effect on disease – even to the point that we can self-heal serious illnesses. This intentional power of these “miracles” can be harnessed and learned. Translating thought into intentionally directed emotion has a specific effect on chemical messengers called neuropetides whose job it is to turn genetic switches on or off. Many of these chemical have specific roles and are associated with particular effects from a stimulated chain of signals. With the right knowledge you can apply adjustments to these chemical transmitters and regulate your stress and healing hormones. Generating a series of conscious physiological changes in the body has repercussions not just for changing one’s mood but for healing – even terminal – illness all by oneself.
Dispenza goes about telling us how in his book You Are the Placebo and offers some compelling scientific evidence to back it all up. He believes that “renewal is built into the very fabric of our bodies and degeneration and disease are the exception, not the norm.” By changing your inner state you change your outer reality. Notice this is in opposition to both the general view of Law of Attraction beliefs and related marketing that seeks to bend external reality toward largely ego-led goals i.e. obtaining something for the ego rather than encouraging inner growth that naturally effects external life without recourse to what is a self-orientated manipulation of reality. Dispenza introduces some crucial caveats to those seemingly magical formulas thereby filling in the gaps in those faulty beliefs. Self-knowledge that liberates and takes us toward a natural authenticity is something quite different to an egocentric desire toward obtaining exclusive betterment for the self. Such self-knowledge cannot be fully activated nor a body healed unless there is a component of awareness that seeks to share and disburse as the end goal. This isn’t a pious, moralistic purview, it is simply the mechanism by which energy flows more productively.
Complex biological processes interfacing with thoughts and emotions are behind such transformations and he goes into great detail to explain what he calls: self-directed neuroplasticity (or SDN). The idea is that we allow old neural pathways to become obsolete by creating new ones through the quality of experiences we cultivate. Meditation and visualisations play a big part in this mind-body reprogramming. The goal here, according to Dr. Dawson Church PhD: “…is to change your beliefs and perceptions about your life at a biological level so that you are, in essence, loving a new future into concrete material existence.” 
The placebo effect is well known. Recent research still shows conclusively that a significant percentage of those given a placebo as opposed to say, a new drug – get better. It appears belief is as powerful – if not more powerful in some cases – than a new drug. Studies have shown that when patients create their own endorphins – the body’s natural pain relievers – it means that the relief experienced isn’t just in their minds but in evidentially in their bodies too; it had become a state of being. Dispenza’s goal is to teach us that we are the placebo and when “…we place [the] belief in the unknown and make the known….” we create our own change, we transcend all manner of psychobiological constraints – including disease. The key seems to be making one’s thoughts more real than outer reality, which means the brain will change to match the conviction of belief as if it has happened. Do this often enough and new genes will be switched on or off initiating those changes just as if the imagined future event is real.
After describing numerous cases of miraculous recoveries, a key factor in their healing was attitude. The type of attitude one had seemed to have “…more of an influence on longevity than blood pressure, cholesterol levels, smoking, bodyweight or level of exercise” Whether a person experienced an excess of negative or positive emotions when ill to a large degree determined how long you would live after heart surgery. In other words, your attitude is crucial. Studies even indicate that the expectation that you will get better has proven to have a constructive effect in the same way that a doctor telling an individual that he has 6 months to live. Very often the belief that this is so, means that such a thing comes to pass. Belief is an extremely powerful untapped resource. if thoughts alone can manufacture dopamine in the brain, what might a consciously directed new internal state activate within the body? With clear intention and a heightened emotional state we may be able to access “our own inner storehouse of pharmaceuticals and [override] the genetic circumstances of disease that were once considered outside conscious control…” 
I urge you to read Dispenza’s work to discover more if you are suffering from any kind of disease and learn his techniques for change. Although there is an aura of the self-help-guru evangelism in the marketing and advertising of Dispenza’s books, DVDs, and workshops, this shouldn’t put you off from the core message which I do believe is ground-breaking, the wide acceptance of which is only in its infancy.
There is a poetic passage that underscores the importance of memory, history and our place in it from historian Ian Mortimer’s novel The Outcasts of Time:
“How then should we regard the past? Indeed, why should we study it at all but to prove to our fellow men that we can, and for the skill of disputation? The answer lies not in preferring the blurred, grand vision to the scrupulous detail, nor does it lie in the opposite prejudice: neither contains sufficient truth. Instead we must find our own way, in the sure knowledge that we too will enter that underworld, where the sun does not shine and the wind does not blow. If we wish to understand our own place on earth, we must seek to understand those who have gone before us. We must look beyond the present moment and see ourselves reflected in the deep pool of time as indiviudal elements of a greater humanity, and not as the passing shapes we may glimpse everyday in a looking-glass, which then are gone forever.” 
Healing ourselves is not simply choosing a method to address stress, emotional repression or the disease of the body. It ultimately requires a faith and trust in the causes and effects which we cannot see, taste, touch, smell or hear. So much of multidimensional healing necessitates the comprehension of biological processes which are autmoatic and instinct yet can be hijacked by a disregulated mind. Similarly, a suspension of disbelief and a conscious move toward a new faith and trust in our ability to put things right is a vital part of self-growth.
It is the healing of the psyche and the accumulation of ills not just from this life perhaps, but from a psycho-spiritual inheritance passed down one’s ancestral line. In effect, self-healing is not only a potential road to self-development but tending to the ecology of memory; the history of our own evolution and that of our ancestors. The process of change that accompanies emotional healing opens a direct line of communication to the past and the study of our personal history. We just have to be aware of that connection and open to harnessing its wisdom. I’ll discuss more about that as this series goes forward.
This relatively new science shows that which ancient wisdom and metaphysics has alluded: that our genetic inheritance is much more complicated than nature vs nurture. The environment and our genes influence our personality make-up in intricate ways. Who we become is not a result of a rigid biological fate nor is it a socially constructed malleability of psychic tabula rasa. Chromosomes are passed from parent to child but there is no genetic fatalism involved when we realise that those genes can be altered according to the choices we make, the decisions of which have profound implications for offspring and future generations. Our self-knowledge – and the level of clarity we bring to the thoughts and feelings of our own history – is locked into the cells of our body and awaiting release according to the self-healing we undertake, the outcome of which is determined by our will, faith and trust in the power of our mind and its connected extensions into a sufficient system of support.
Our life is not determined by genes or the environment – it is a combination of both plus are own unique conscience. Our genes are effectively alive with a binary on/off switch part of the very chromosomes on the ladder of the DNA double helix. How you process the many influences you inherit from your parents and your social environment will determine your future. Why? Because as the science of epigenetics has discovered over the past few decades, we are not some reductionist machine defined by our constituent parts, nor are we simply random mutations and a product of Darwinian survival.
We are constantly evolving units of consciousness wired to adapt at the biological, cognitive level, and drawn to connect, exchange, learn, accumulate wisdom and dispense that knowledge at the psychospiritual level of being.
Whether one is an academic or a layman seeking to understand the past, if carried out correctly – regardless of whether healing is a primary focus – we live the past and thereby mediate the present, cradling it in a creative tension. In doing so, all manner of healing occurs as the energy of insight crosses that bridge. By fully engaging with what might have been, we tune into the individual and collective memories lying dormant in the DNA of timeless consciousness. By refusing to acquiesce to an indoctrinated and orthodox fate we ennoble the suffering of history and become a living symbol of that resistance.
When you heal yourself, you are helping to heal those you have known and will know.
Our goal is to adapt and transcend that which impedes the expression of balance. We only devolve and disintegrate when we believe that we have no power over our minds and bodies and that everything is etched into a immovable edifice of scientific reductionism; that same belief that tells you you have Alzheimer’s disease in your family and you have that same gene, ergo, you must wait for the inevitable, with no possibility for any other outcome. Or that you must have a mastectomy or undergo chemotherapy because a genetic determinism tells us that this is the only possible route to healing. We now know that this is not the case. It means that must alter our perceptions and our lifestyles in order to “switch off” those genes programmed to respond to environment and hereditary triggers and create the neural resonance necessary to pre-empt a negative generational blueprint. It means you must do everything you can to re-engineer your mind and your body to switch on to an alternative reality. In other words, you adapt and you adapt creatively.
In cases of unrecognised Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) the condition becomes overwhelming. If the mind and body is flooded with stress hormones on an almost daily basis this signals to the genes that the environment is hostile which the nature of the genes and may even trigger the negative genetics inheritance of the future. The same is true of childhood adversity effects and various levels of severe or mild trauma.
Can you imagine what happens when the trauma of war and sexual abuse is inflicted on the young? Which is why self-knowledge and an awareness of our place in culture and society as well as affective healing modalities must come under the umbrella of our quest to grow beyond imbalance and disease.
Taking account of the power of the mind is an essential component of any healing and needs to play a central role in conventional medicine. Yet, despite many studies and research confirming the fact that our minds can influence our bodies and its disease, profits of orthodox medicine and pharmaceutical corporations still hold sway. They know that any peer-reviewed research that potentially yields real-life benefits for people to self-heal means a reduction – potentially momentous – in their profit margins. (The science behind many vaccines currently lauded as saviour and healer are one example of this immune system orthodoxy in both belief and business, with catastrophic results). Moreover, as Dr. Kelly Brogan mentions, we cannot really get to grips with the new advances en masse unless Big Pharma and psychiatry’s monopoly is reduced. The epidemic in opioid addiction is one result of this stranglehold on an outdated and corrupt view of the mind-body relationship.
We need both orthodox medicine and the new advances. Once the former integrates the discoveries in psychoneuroimmunology, diet and mind-body connections across a broad range of disciplines then the very nature of medicine, palliative care and the concept of healing will be transformed entirely. This is a path that will continue to be resisted, but cannot be denied in the long-term.
Although many doctors, nurses and surgeons are aware and supportive of these new advances the establishment infrastructure – thus the practical dissemination and application – is not in place since there are far more medical professionals and their corporate paymasters who are ignorant of these rediscoveries and often actively hostile. This means patients continue to suffer or die needlessly; those who would benefit from innovative and effective healing tools do not receive them due to cost or basic accessibility.
Do not believe that conventional medicine, though important, has all the answers. It does not. It behooves us to become aware of all the possibilities out there and how the immune system responds to our mental perception in extraordinary ways. We don’t have to believe in a disembodied consciousness separate from mind and body, only that the integration of all three makes perfect sense and represents the cutting edge of good science.
We will look at some of these modalities in the next post.
 ‘Gabor Maté: How to Build a Culture of Good Health’ http://www.yesmagazine.org, November 16th 2015 | https://www.yesmagazine.org/issues/good-health/gabor-mate-how-to-build-a-culture-of-good-health-20151116
 ‘Understanding the Vagus Nerve: Interview with Dr. Stephen Porges’ By Leigh Winters, wanderlust.com, 13 Dec 2018. | https://www.sott.net/article/402863-Understanding-the-Vagus-Nerve-Interview-with-Dr-Stephen-Porge
 Foreward, p.1; Dispensza, Dr. Joe; You Are the Placebo: Making Your Mind Matter (2014) Published by Hay House UK.
 Ibid. p.3
 p. 324; Mortimer; Ian,The Outcasts of Time (2017) Published bySimon & Schuster UK.
 op.cit Dispenza.