By M.K. Styllinski
Let me tell you about Preschool Mastermind, a daycare for adults in Brooklyn, N.Y. It is not, as I had thought, an April Fool’s joke or even a fetish den but an actual thing. Tall, hairy, wrinkled Americans — I’m assuming they have jobs because you can’t get student loans for kindergarten — pay a grand to recreate their happiest times, spending their days as four-year-olds: fingerpainting, show-and-telling, playing musical chairs, napping with a blankie and a Fig Newton.
— Heather Mallick, ‘The growing childishness of American adults’
Columnist Heather Mallick quoted above comments on mass infantilism and political disengagement which can only lead to the erosion of our civil liberties. She highlights a recent interview of whistleblower Edward Snowden by John Oliver of The Intercept who took a camera to Times Square and asked people who “Edward Snowden” was. Not one person knew. However, when asked if it was okay for the NSA to store photos of their genitals they were vehemently indignant. As Mallick observes: “This is how you get toddlers upset; you mention swimsuit areas.”Hugely important issues that strike at the very heart of our freedoms barely register, unless it’s to do with personal shame.
The freedom to exhibit one’s tackle and the shame of it being viewed (with probable hilarity) by State minions certainly throws up a tangled mess of mixed Freudian messages….
If you think the world is going insane then you can be sure that much of this is due to an inability to process deep change and the horror of having to confront one’s own psychology in the face of uncertainties and shocks. The net result of cultural narcissism means an arrested emotional development which has led to a widespread absence of maturity and responsibility. Nonetheless, you don’t have to be a pathological narcissist to find yourself grappling with such things. Since we live in such a culture, it is probable that all of us have had to confront narcissistic traits and various degrees of trauma in order to truly move forward with our lives. As those who have finally tackled such an ambitious objective can attest – it is not a pleasant experience, which is why those exhibiting symptoms of infantilism find it doubly difficult to claw their way back to adulthood without some appropriate form of therapy. For older individuals who have spent a life time sucking on the dummy of victimhood and entitlement this may be a tall order indeed, since it has become their personality with little room for change.
According to Merriam-Webster dictionary the definition of an adult is “a fully developed and mature: grown-up”. What does it mean to be grown up? Robert A. Hall’s article in the American Thinker gives a suitable description of what an ideal adult might be, taking into account that none of us can live up to this ideal all or even some of the time. The key is to strive to do so, both for yourself and your children since they will follow your example and define the next generation. He lists several descriptors which define a normal adult including: resilience; patience; disciplined; openness; consideration; supporting themselves and their family; altruistic in day to day life and most importantly, they do not take on a victim status but cultivate a sense of responsibility. In a word: true adults have integrity; they have a healthy ego that is kept in check by humility knowing that it’s not all about them and they are aware of their weaknesses but strive to overcome them. As discussed previously, many parents and the cultural cross-currents under which they were immersed in the 60s and 70s were exposed to a range of detrimental social changes which ultimately did no favours for them or their children.
Our body-centric focus is certainly over-developed alongside an elevated egotism. This infantilism is presiding over the male-female removal of body hair to the normalisation of paedophilia in law and academia. We are seeing generations of men and women who are personifying the psycho-spiritual chaos that has been wrought over the last several decades through emotional impairment, missing certain stages of neurological development through experiences in childhood and beyond. Factor in social engineering, postmodernist inculcation and a legion of other psychic pressures, the concept of adulthood has been twisted out of shape to induce a total reliance on the State for all one’s provisions. The government as provider of social welfare has fed into an assumed right to be taken care of, further eroding the potential of community and the lost creative power of people to nurture, support and nourish each other financially and spiritually.
For young men masculine role models are few and far between thanks to postmodernist thinking; the emasculation of the male by 3rd wave feminism and the distorted philosophy paraded as science by gender identity politics. Millennials and Generation Z have no idea where they should be regarding the opposite sex. The “wisdom” of the day has turned masculinity on its head so that boys grow up to be needy and dependent or emotionally disconnected and obnoxious. Alpha male does mean being an asshole, something that women are still genetically-programmed to follow. By the same token, believing that to be a man you must be a spineless, compliant beta male, doing the bidding of women’s often unconscious biological survival strategies to gain the best outcome for herself and her children doesn’t foster respect for oneself or the partner. Boys and young men have been reduced to docile, feminised door-mats with an excess of feminine energy on the one hand and passive-aggressive players with an excess of masculine energy, on the other. Young girls are suffering from the same lack of role models and the exact same relational problems in reverse. (More on this in a future post).
To be infantile and adolescent has been accepted as a lifestyle by public opinion. Young people want to be adults and adults want to be young. Boundaries and natural limitations are blurred to the extent that personal identity is dictated by mainstream media and pop culture. Superheroes, vampires and werewolf trilogies in movies and literature are as popular with adults as they are with tweens. Plastic surgery, sexual enhancement and the transhumanist obessession with youth and immortality is merging with an increasingly body-centric and materialist view of life. The pace of change is so fast that people cannot keep up and are resorting to infantilism to slow down this unnatural acceleration – a reaction to a “liquid society” which, according to sociology professor Jacopo Bernardini has “redesigned its temporal spaces according to the dimensions of speed and possibility and, as a result, youth appears to be the more efficacious model.” 
When developmental stages of preliminary adulthood are no longer linear but plucked out of context and seen as an end in themselves, then time has no real meaning. Instead, pseudo-adults “…dwell in a universe where the diversity between youth and adulthood has been not only removed, but has become a characterizing element.”  A man or woman that refuses to grow up rejects the nature of internal growth, a journey to maturity that necessarily requires time. And if she were to allow the time to fulfill itself she would be forced to confront that self which has been internalised and displaced by a mask that is without substance; a perfect reflection of an Official Culture under which she is psychically imprisoned. As Bernardini states, “The person loses every identifying criterion; the individual is now called to choose and embody a model of stability in which to recognize himself without relying on a normative principle … The individual discovers the unprecedented opportunity to draw his own social. This is a truly fascinating yet risky context. The vagueness, the unknown, and insecurity hide behind each potential decision.” 
When enough individuals are infected with various strains of psychopathy then it becomes the identity of the mass mind, shifting and morphing only within its pre-defined parameters. Extreme individualism, self-determination and autonomy that is birthed from capitalism has collided with vertical collectivism and postmodernist ideology to create hybrid dynamics of inverted values. This infantilism – as with any minor or major pathology – serves to safeguard not just cartel capitalism but the very organisms of the State. After all, children and young adults are the perfect target for a consumerist model since they are naturally emotional, egocentric and impulsive. When a sufficient number of adults become infantilised it translates into more consumerist real estate for the marketing, advertising and media parasites. In such a climate of avoidance branding the kids then becomes extended to the raft of pseudo-adults clamouring for escape through sensation.
Such fields have played a key role in disseminating the ideal of youth and longevity as a lifestyle choice; image as identity is the only way one can offer the illusion of success, ambition and uniqueness, where collective regression is lauded as the barometer of normative values. And as always, it is unbridled consumption that gets us there regardless of its total mis-match with reality. Mix in the new age marketing of mindfulness and the “power of now” you have another tool to reject objective reality, rather than embrace it. If you add any medicating modality that attempts to heal a collective malaise without first addressing the negative elements that have been inculcated into the individual as normal, then such attempts at “being in the moment” will ultimately be subsumed into that perceptual framework. The present cancels the future and all the associated positives of a balanced outlook such as stability, foresight, planning and responsibility – the hallmarks of an adult – are lost to self-calming.
“[The infantilist ethos] is an ethos of induced childishness: an infantilization that is closely tied to the demands of consumer capitalism in a global market economy.”
— Benjamin R. Barber, “Consumed” (2007)
From both a Freudian and Jungian perspective combined we might say that the cumulative effect of suppressing/repressing elements of one’s instincts and emotions due to childhood hurts, traumas and external conditioning produces a poisonous well-spring of shadowlands within the psyche. If these shadows are not integrated through various forms of therapy and bodywork it can lead to varying degrees of dis-integration playing havoc with the health of the mind-body complex. Archetypal energy embodied in thousands of ancient and modern myths can be personified by anyone, from vampire to hero; saboteur to trickster, each with their destructive or constructive aspect which can show itself in our behaviour. Right now, it seems we largely have an epidemic of the vampire and wounded child archetypes in the world at large.
Our defence mechanisms – ways in which we prevent the more unsavoury aspects of our character from being known, our shadows within – pretty much make up the whole personality of a narcissist. This is equally true, to a lesser degree, for those stuck in an infantile view of themselves and therefore, the world. If we do not have the tools or will to address this accumulation of pain we continue to habitually shove these undesirable elements into the depths of the unconscious which often leak out only to cause repeating cycles of further pain and problems. It’s easy to then rationalise these problems as “bad luck” or to blame it on the boss. Ignoring the need for integration and healing means that it can only be managed by projecting it into the external world as a coping mechanism. Anyone that criticizes the object of identification might as well be criticising their personal identity and will be received as probing into darker regions of their selves that are too painful to expose; hardened and crystallised into an ego-mask that will do anything to escape detection.
In psychodynamic parlance, we have projection, (Denying the existence of unconscious impulses in ourselves and projecting them onto people and events) displacement (substitution of an objective or state in order to avoid the harm that could eventuate if addressed directly) and what is known as “splitting” which is a defence mechanism of black and white thinking. The latter simplifies the challenge of ambiguity so that we don’t have to confront the truth about the world or ourselves, which is more complexed and nuanced.
Oversimplification and exaggeration is a hallmark of some forms of social justice at this time. It’s easier to loathe our enemies and gain satisfaction that we are in no way like them. Although hatred can be a natural expression of repulsion and disgust at actions which are clearly abhorrent, all too often it be an intense reaction to what is hidden in our unconscious as dis-integrated parts of our psyche seeking to be integrated. We can see this in the United States’s government and foreign policy of the last 50 years which has raged and thrashed about whilst waxing lyrical about its perceived moral exceptionalism and Democratic values.
Shame, deep anger, regret, weakness – any number of suppressed hurts and traumas can metastasize into monsters set loose on the world and those we love. It is no coincidence that American culture in particular is stilling having a love affair with fantasy, fairy-tale and super-hero escapism – the American dream turned nightmare, if it was ever present at all. This idealisation of celebrities and power figures also represents a wish to be taken care of; to be told everything is okay; a co-dependent reliance to anything that will buffer the true about oneself and the realities of existence.
The pleasure principle replaces all other reality-based principles, be it the rush of social activism or a trip to the shopping mall at the end of the working week. As former commodities analyst and now social commentator Michael Kreiger recently commented in his article Keeping your head when many Americans are rapidly descending into madness “The only way the world will improve on a long-term sustainable basis is if more of us get wise. That’s a personal journey and it’s our individual duty to accept it.”
Doesn’t look like there’s a lot of acceptance out there – so chaos is arriving as a consequence.
The Devolution of Language
The influence of social networks on the evolution of language is huge. One only has to see how the disappearance of traditional writing transferred to word processors and the ubiquitous use of text acronyms now repeated in speech. The takeover of emoji-ridden short-hand isn’t just the province of millennials. For example: R U in 2onite? OMG! Jayz cumin over w/o the boyz! Gr8! LOL! The infantilisation of speech is from the same encouraged regression, from pop culture references to the alteration of linguistic patterns now being seen across the generations.
Michael Shapiro, Professor Emeritus of Slavic and Semiotic Studies at Brown University has offered sharp evidence for the recessive infantilisation of language. Childish speech patterns which were once considered puerile are now considered fairly normal for some adults and an indication of a cultural move “toward a state of permanent infantilism.”  A simple example: “mom,” “dad,” and “kid” are now commonly used instead of their more traditional mature predecessors of “mother,” “father,” and “child”.
Russian social scientists Irina A. Martynova and Gennady V. Glukhov writing in the Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences, agree with Shapiro a and confirm the influence of infantilism (and by extension, elements of narcissism) by quoting V.D Chernyak who claims “…contemporary speech is pierced with personal emotions. The emphasis shifts from what is being said to how it is being said. This observation correlates with the concepts of domineering primary speech intentions and egocentric speech.” Once again, form over substance. From both English and Russian linguistics they see an increased use of diminutives as “driven by the subconscious desire to look defenseless” whilst allowing the avoidance of adult issues.
Martynova and Glukhova highlight other indicators in both the Russian and English languages. These include intensifiers or boosters (words that emphasize another word or phrase) which are used twice as frequently by adults than by teenagers, but most interestingly in the context of a culture of fear and hyperreactivity the use of vague language and hedges (cautious language: e.g. general extenders; placeholders; fillers; approximators, etc.) are more common in adults than in teenagers and have increased in recent times. Vague language can be used to maintain and enhance an exchange or relationship yet there are other perhaps more pressing reasons for the increase in vague language which may include: “an inability to find the right word for it at the time; not wishing to make decisions; not wanting to give direct answers; not wanting to hurt another ’s feelings; you have feelings for two opposing answers; you don’t want to give precise information or details; you are unsure; you are not interested…”  Does this not sound like the effects of postmodernism and snowflake sensibilities? And perhaps like a linguistic virus of floating memetic pathogens: “everyone seems to be playing the game either by innovating or passing on what others invent”. Innovation firmly inside Official Culture and thus defined by its limitations cannot be said to be truly creative if it merely reinvents in order to reinforce conformity and consensus.
The journal article states the the driving force of this tendency is due to an “accommodation [or maladaption?] …to constant changes in life” which allows “grown-ups to stop being grown up. Thus, they let their guard down, and are no longer afraid of being embarrassed among others.”  General simplification in the choice of words and their presentation was also observed in line with changing attitudes. Word frequencies are following the same direction demonstrating: “… the growing importance of individualistic values” and further seen “…as an adaptation to urban environments prioritizing choice, personal possessions, and child-centered socialization in order to foster the development of psychological mindedness and the unique self, thus, once again pointing to growing egocentricity.” 
Finally, they discovered that these findings are mirroring in speech what we are also seeing in actions and behaviour, and vice versa: ” …markers of accuracy and reliability of the utterance have vanished from everyday language practice. It is another signal of growing uncertainty and reluctance to take responsibility that has already been current for some time. The above findings support the idea of Stuart Vail (2001) who suggests that society’s inability to be accountable for anything is reflected in how we speak. The most obvious finding to emerge from the analysis is that there has been a drift towards linguistic devices that tend to minimize risks in interaction. Some of them demonstrate speech patterns typical for childish speech.” 
Language is the carrier of ideas and beliefs so perhaps it is not so shocking that it too would be become subject to the same disintegration. Regression to infantile beliefs has traditionally been practiced by fundamentalist religions the world over. Since fear is dominating social systems at this time we are seeing s resurgence of the same religious, even cultic belief systems in the new age movement, conspiracy culture and self-help industry. As a product of this mental degeneration basic reasoning has now become so poor that people are even believing that the Earth is actually flat. Such a new belief has all the hallmarks of a CIA-sponsored Tavistock Institute experiment to gauge the depth of suggestibility of the mass mind, in particular the more conspiracy-minded members of the alternative media. Such a flat earth belief has clear benefits for the Establishment because it provides distraction and noise and initiates new divisions within non-mainstream media outlets.
Parallel with the new threats from ending net neutrality, these Psyops are part of the road map of military cyberwarfare for your mind otherwise known as “information dominance.” Knowing that the internet was the last bastion of free speech a complement to this plan is the “cognitive infiltration” of alternative media outlets as posited by Cass Sunstein, psyops Czar for the Obama administration. From the way such a flat earth meme has propagated it appears their experiment has only been a roaring success due in part to this infantilism that rejects reason over emotion and embraces superstition over evidence-based science.
The effects of ponerised material upon the mass mind is powerful. A rising complacency is present in response to the blatant crimes of the State. Even social media reactions to mass shootings (as opposed to analysis) fizzle out very quickly compared to several years ago. Populations are becoming anesthetized to acts of terror – state sponsored or otherwise. With apathy and acclimatization to state crimes on the one hand and angry, socially engineered activism on the other, we are sleep-walking towards a zombie apocalypse of psychologically disabled generations.
This increasing state of adult adolescence has manifested across the European and American psychological spectrum. The right-wing, religious authoritarian profile is fairly well-known, yet, it is the radical left worldview that can be equally authoritarian and petulant in its wish to dominate others. Indeed, a recent study indicates that liberals can be as narrow-minded and have more psychotic traits than their hated conservative nemeses, something which would have been surprising to me, only a few years ago.  
Reshaping Play and Community
This institutionalised coddling of younger generations who are already overanxious and entitled has seen some quite extraordinary examples of poor parenting and health & safety madness as Jonathan Haidt and Lenore Skenazy from their article in reason.com:
One day last year, a citizen on a prairie path in the Chicago suburb of Elmhurst came upon a teen boy chopping wood. Not a body. Just some already-fallen branches. Nonetheless, the onlooker called the cops. Officers interrogated the boy, who said he was trying to build a fort for himself and his friends. A local news site reports the police then ‘took the tools for safekeeping to be returned to the boy’s parents.’
“Elsewhere in America, preschoolers at the Learning Collaborative in Charlotte, North Carolina, were thrilled to receive a set of gently used playground equipment. But the kids soon found out they would not be allowed to use it, because it was resting on grass, not wood chips. “It’s a safety issue,” explained a day care spokeswoman. Playing on grass is against local regulations.
And then there was the query that ran in Parents magazine a few years back: ‘Your child’s old enough to stay home briefly, and often does. But is it okay to leave her and her playmate home while you dash to the dry cleaner?’ Absolutely not, the magazine averred: ‘Take the kids with you, or save your errand for another time.’ After all, “you want to make sure that no one’s feelings get too hurt if there’s a squabble.’
The principle here is simple: This generation of kids must be protected like none other. They can’t use tools, they can’t play on grass, and they certainly can’t be expected to work through a spat with a friend. And this, it could be argued, is why we have ‘safe spaces’ on college campuses and millennials missing adult milestones today. We told a generation of kids that they can never be too safe-and they believed us.” 
There is no doubt that children are being affected by a culture of fear, and according to one author and research on British habits, a “risk aversion and obsession with safety that have become defining features of contemporary society. This trend is described by one sociologist as a ‘cultural climate of pervasive anxiety.”  And now we have young folks over-protected and over-sensitized to what is unimportant and under-sensitized to what is. We have generations which are literally hypersensitive to offence and feel micro-trauma because they have been reared that way; like a featherless chick who is used to being fed everything and is afraid to fly into the unknown since there lies a life which they know may not conform to a subjective, preconceived ideas. They may well stay in the nest of the home or create their own nested reality within.
An induced fear, shame and low self-confidence means the mind-body nervous system cannot process that inevitable leap into the unknown unless it is expunging and exorcising that tension through addiction, “activism” or a complete withdrawal into a virtual world. Unfortunately, suppressing such anxiety and stress it only creates more mental issues. Since the influences that could grow a psycho-spiritual sustenance was wholly or partly lacking, the inner vessel that houses the fine energy needed to tackle the world as it is, now stands empty. The child may be protected from negative outcomes but when left to fend for herself, she will not be able to cope. Children and adolescents learn by doing not by sitting in front of their gaming console, their smart phone or having mum or dad acting as siblings and friends.
This magnification of danger and insulation against any form of emotional “injury” is what has produced the university campus problems of hyperreactivity and the threat to free inquiry and speech. As Haidt reminds us: “…what of the kids still in grammar school, constantly reminded they might accidentally hurt each other with the wrong words? When today’s 8-year-olds become the 18-year-olds starting college, will they still view free speech as worthy of protecting? … Even more dishearteningly, adults who believe it’s good for young people to run some errands or play kickball down the street have to think twice about letting them, because busybodies, cops, and social workers are primed to equate “unsupervised” with “neglected and in danger.” He goes on to mention Daniel Shuchman, chairman of the free speech-promoting Foundation for Individual Rights in Education (FIRE) who draws our attention to the relevance of First Amendment for these young minds, asking how essential would they consider this enshrinement of our freedoms: “…if they start learning in fifth grade that you’re forbidden to say-or even think-certain things, especially at school?’ ”  And to make matters worse, the fears around social workers and Child Protection Services can certainly be justified for precisely the same over exaggeration and sometimes corrupt nature of its operations.
Photo: Robert Collins |unsplash.com/
There is also the matter of traditional children’s play-time which has contributed to the state of mental and physical health of the millennial and Z generations. Restrictions and rules governing where, when and how children can play have fallen under the sights of the Health & Safety junta, as well as the shift towards technology as provider. In my own experience, the Health & Safety industry is spawned from the same over protective dogma and just as problematic in the United Kingdom as it is in America. Mix profit over common sense, the former is always the deciding factor.
About five years ago I was involved in creating an eco-house and community project in a conservation area of woodlands in North London. Included in this enterprise was a cafe to be established in an old hunting lodge which was derelict and ear-marked for demolition by the borough council. We hoped to fund the cafe with organic produce sourced from gardens which we would also create, located adjacent to the building. We were able to do this successfully over several years and it is now a thriving community hub with many activities for children and young adults.
Part of the nature of these activities was to understand flora and fauna and engage with the forest in ways that would involve exercise (climbing trees) study (going off in small groups to collect information) and other creative endeavours which necessarily involve supervised physical exercise. A colleague and main driver of the project had a talent for story-telling and children’s activities which were proving extremely popular. He would take the children on treasure hunts, making wildlife-based fancy dress parties and various other fun projects.
Parents and children started to arrive from all over London. A small donation was charged for materials and any excess would be ploughed back into future activities and cafe expenditure. Other courses in the gardens did the same thing. But the council’s Health & Safety unit decided such activities were dangerous to the welfare of children, effectively stating that learning of this kind made the forest a dangerous place. Unless my friend wished to be fined and go to jail he was prohibited from continuing his activities despite the fact that we had rejuvenated and re-enchanted an area which had only benefited the borough council itself – despite their often lackluster support. The result? Children were denied a creative, meaningful and fun educational experience due to over-protection and silly laws.
These laws are often drafted by those who know nothing of the importance of nature and play-time as the real way to learn, especially in often deprived urban environments where play, nature and learning as fun is restricted or entirely absent. Combined with an education system that is a) based on a military-corporate vision, actively crushing any divergent, creative thinking or, b) a fusion of postmodern, politically correct nonsense grafted onto that same template. More disturbingly, if you create such a culture of hypersensitivity often driven by politically-motivated myths, children will end up exactly as such thinking dictates: fragile snowflakes out of touch and disconnected from nature and the real world. As Jonathan Haidt states: “Unstructured, unsupervised time for play is one of the most important things we have to give back to kids if we want them to be strong and happy and resilient.” 
That was at least ten years ago – things are much worse now. Sports activities, art lessons and school trips are considerably diminished or non-existent in most schools outside the private sector. Similarly, local towns and villages both in the UK and US cannot compete with shopping malls and mega-stores. The corner shop, the post-office, grocers, delicatessens, libraries, pubs and various local arts and crafts and artisans who used to exists have all but dried up. Particularly in the UK, local churches, which used to be the centre of community life – with declining attendance from a number of different factors – are fast disappearing. Forging stronger adherence to religious doctrine isn’t the answer here, but the dis-integration of young minds stems from the same fracturing and fragmentation of community. Churches were certainly places to commune, not just with one’s God but to soak up a history of spiritual nourishment and an unbroken chain of communal sharing. Humanists and atheists probably welcome such an evolution but do we see the benefits in our children? What is going to replace them? Gaming clubs? Bar n Grill?
As Haidt and Skenazy explain:
Children know that their parents had more freedom to roam than they do, and more unscheduled time to read or tinker or explore. They also realize that older generations were trusted to roll with some punches, at school and beyond. We hope kids today will start demanding that same independence and respect for themselves. It’s their freedom that has been chiseled away, after all.
We want them to insist on their right to engage not just with the physical world, but also with the world of ideas. We want them to hear, read, and voice opinions that go against the grain. We want them to be insulted by the assumption that they and their classmates are so easily hurt that arguments must stop before they start. To this end, we hope to encourage their skepticism about the programs and policies that are ostensibly there to “protect” them from discomfort. 
Raise a child insulated against reality then we condemn that child to a programmed narcissism and/or infantilism. And it will say much more about society’s level of awareness and knowledge than it will about the child and emerging teen. Yet, as we have seen, a large proportion of the younger generations have been conditioned to believe and behave in ways which are psychologically unhealthy and already having serious repercussions for the future of society. After all, the last thing a person afflicted with an infantile view of himself and the world wants to do is allow anyone to pierce that bubble – even if it means the demise of free speech.
In the next post we will look at the role of social networks and its relationship millennial psychology.
Christopher Hitchens | On the “regression to infantilism” at universities  (1:21)
[Regression to Infantilism and victimhood] …will be unstoppable and completely negative – and very BORING.”
Although the late Christopher Hitchens had his blindspots and beliefs like so many genius debaters, he was warning against this infantilism over twenty years ago.
 ‘The Role of Marketing in the Infantilization of the Postmodern Adult’ by Jacopo Bernardini, Assistant Professor of Sociology and Methodology of Social Research at the Department of Institutions and Society of the Faculty of Political Sciences, University of Perugia.
 ‘Liberals narrow-minded as conservatives study finds – ‘just as averse to listening to opposing viewpoints’ RT, 30 Apr 2017.
 ‘Liberals, not conservatives, show more psychotic traits’ By Danika Fears, New York Post, 09 Jun 2016.
 ‘Why the Nanny State and paranoid parenting are creating a Fragile Generation’ By Lenore Skenazy & Jonathan Haidt, reason.com, 26 Oct 2017.
 Quoted in ‘Exploring the Echoes of Social Changes: Case Study of Language Infantilism’ Irina A.Martynova, Gennady V. Glukhov | Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences, MCSER Publishing, Rome-Italy, Vol 6 No 6 S3, November 2015.
 Op. cit Haidt, Skenazy.